our lady of guadalupe debunked

The head of the Virgin of Guadalupe is one of the great masterpieces of artistic facial expression. The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. She again refused and told him that the next day she would give him a sign which would convince the bishop of the truth of his story. Within the house was an image of the Virgin and Child, that tradition said had been carved and painted by Luke the Evangelist. These men lost track of him and returned to the bishop, saying that Juan had invented the whole thing. For an optimal experience visit our site on another browser. There are other points I could look up because I studied it in history a couple of years ago. In the secular world, she has become ubiquitous, appropriated by popular culture and placed on clothing, home furnishings and outdoor murals. JUREZ, Mxico (Border Report) Mientras copos de nieve caan Dunning, Brian. The Image of Guadalupe: A folkloristic and iconographic investigation. They talk of miracles, great and small. ONe of the truly marveous and inexplicable tecniques utilized to give realism to the painting is the way it takes advantage of the unsized tilma to give it depth and render it lifelike. Shes blind and is on dialysis but still with us., There are so many other saints, she said, but our Virgen de Guadalupe is of the Americas. Which is exactly backwards from how their much vaunted "scientific method" is supposed to work. All Rights Reserved. For over six months the city offered multiple resolutions for relocating the shrine, and all of those suggestions were rejected., Filed Under: News Tagged With: Guadalupe, New jersey, Passaic, shrine, Spirit Daily is sustained by books, special reports,. Anyone can read what you share. The power of the Lady of Guadalupe resides inside the hearts of those who feel its a miracle or a sign from god. It gets filled with the good things we do and emptied with the bad. Castillo, author of Black Dove: Mama, Mijo, and Me, said that feminists and activists for social justice still look to this centuries-old icon as a source of inspiration. For Chvez, it's hard to know if it was a miracle at that time because we don't know if it was a ray of light that happened to hit upon one of the nearby metal objects, projecting a light on her womb., What we do know is that she is the defender of life, he said, and pointed to the simple fact that she has a dark ribbon over the womb, which means she's pregnant and that therefore Jesus Christ Our Lord is in her immaculate womb.. The natural fiber it is made out of should have deteriorated by now. David Garcia, a retired San Antonio priest of almost 47 years, described her as omnipresent in the Mexican American parishes in which he ministered. HWr8gd "olm |%lZF9O"MyU*%c/_$ {5>\IIA7,>e_[_o?n_>WNhsq?>s_dSf"{wj8jZn=v|PG~,K. You need to be a member in order to leave a comment. How does science explain its existence after 500 years? The natural fiber it is made out of should have deteriorated by now. As Christmas delivers its message that Christ is born, her consoling message remains: God has not forgotten you. Thus, in an example of what must be the most successful can you help me with my research survey of all time, the Jesuit Wilhelm Gumppenberg, having asked Jesuit houses around the globe to inform him of any local devotions to the Virgin Mary in their surrounding communities, published a second edition of his Atlas Marianus in 1672 which tallied some 1200 distinct cults of the Virgin. It's easy! Speaking to ACI Prensa, CNA's Spanish language news partner, Chvez separated fact from fiction. She brought him back to the barren hill and told him to pick all the flowers he saw and bring these to the bishop. In a letter leaked to the press, the former abbot of the basilica in Mexico City, Guillermo Schulenburg, warned Pope John Paul II not to canonise Juan Diego, a native American whose vision of the Virgin 500 years ago was decisive in converting Latin America to Christianity. They could be completely disproved today, and it would matter nothing to me. F.IV.96, which will appear in the next issue of Miscellanea Bibliothechae Apostolicae Vaticanae. We also addressed some of the pseudoscience that the image has attracted. Anywhere you have more than one Mexican, whether in Toledo, Ohio or Toluca, Mexico, you will probably have a Virgin of Guadalupe sighting because of the need and desire for her presence.. Mel, Personally, I don't really have feelings one way or another about the various 'miracles' of Guadelupe, Lordes, etc. When I think about them (w | David Ramos/CNA, 'God really intervened': How a Catholic priest escaped from his kidnappers in Haiti. Was there recently a light miraculously projected on the womb of the Virgin of Guadalupe? In a miraculous sign, her image appeared on Juan Diegos tilma, a piece of fragile fabric, which he carried to the local bishop to prove her apparitions. As a subscriber, you have 10 gift articles to give each month. [5] S. Poole, Our Lady of Guadalupe. Members of parish societies largely made up of women, called Guadalupanas, have stories of her intercessions after Our Lady of Guadalupe was asked for ayuda (aid) or apoyo (support). Come To My Heart CD, Released 2011. Mayor Felix Roque said the town was spending $1,000 a day for police officers to prevent vandalism of the tree, defuse confrontations and keep traffic moving on the busy strip of Bergenline Avenue between 60th and 61st Streets. Rosales examined the cloth with a stereomicroscope and observed that the canvas appeared to be a mixture of linen and hemp or cactus fiber. Our Lady of Guadalupe is one of the most famous apparitions in the world. As a scientist, I feel that God has hidden much in our world for us to find, examine, and understand. On the basis of strong circumstantial evidence, not least that the chapter voted to petition Rome in May 1663 on behalf of their cult of Guadalupe, it is clear that this document was part of a large dossier sent to Rome, by way of Seville, some time that summer. Here is the analysis of Dr. Philip Callahan, research biologist at the University of Florida, also a painter photographer, and scientific writer, w TRUTH This is true. The Origins and Sources of a Mexican National Symbol, 1531-1797, rev. The history is a summary of the events of the apparitions followed by a minute description of the image itself. ~ Philip S. Callahan, "The Tilma Under Infa-Red Radiation," [i]CARA Studies on Popular Devotion, Volume II: Guadalupan Studies,[/i] No 3 (Washington, 1981) pp. StephenMetzger is Assistant Scriptorat the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. By the Early Modern period, devotion had grown in Spain, promoted by the Spanish kings, even decreeing that its feast day, 8 December, be observed with appropriate processions and celebrations in all parts of New Spain. Copyright 2023. She addressed him tenderly, asking him where he was going. He is a graduate of the University of Notre Dame's Medieval Institute and the author of the two-volumeGerard of Abbeville, Secular Master, on Knowledge, Wisdom and Contemplation. What sets this purported appearance apart from others such as the visions in Lourdes or Fatima is that the proof that Our Lady of Guadalupe gave Juan Diego can still be seen today, on display at the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe outside Mexico City. Carmen Lopez, of Passaic, N.J., noticed the knot on July 5 while car-pooling to her job at a perfume factory in Edison, N.J. She brought it to the attention of two priests, the West New York police and finally the mayor. He did so, but the bishop, while not a skeptic, was a prudent man and asked for proof. FOLLOW NBC NEWS LATINO ON FACEBOOK, TWITTER AND INSTAGRAM. Unfortunately, Juan spent that day caring for his uncle who was gravely ill. A Reflection for Friday of the First Week of Lent, by Jill Rice. You dont have to be Catholic to respond to the affirmation, affection, and security that she offers. A Journal of the McGrath Institute for Church Life, by Stephen M. Metzger She was celebrated by the U.S. Chicano civil rights movement in the 1960s and 70s, and she has been seen more recently in immigrant rights and Black Lives Matter marches. EIN: 22-2306795, Email us at webhelp@skepticalinquirer.org. The cloth that her image was painted on always deteriorated within a very short amount of time because it was not very durable (I think it was something like 20 years that it usually lasted). Our Lady of Guadalupe is present, in some form, during historical events and becomes a core part of Mexican identity. Images of Our Lady of Guadalupe were used by Cesar Chavez during the Mexican-American civil rights movement, and by immigrants rights advocates in the 1990s and 2000s. On the back of it is a Mexican flag. We won't rent or sell your information, and you can unsubscribe at any time. Why am I being asked to create an account? They don't move, they don't dilate., Chvez explained that they're misinterpreting something that an ophthalmologist, Enrique Graue, noted, namely that the eyes seem to be human, in the sense that they look like a photo of a human being, with the depth and reflection of a human eye.. people, women and others in the Catholic Church, Cardinal Cupich: Critics of Pope Francis Latin Mass restrictions should listen to JPII, Albany diocese places hold on all Traditional Latin Masses except at Jesuit martyrs shrine, 5 lessons from Pope Francis commitment to Muslim-Catholic dialogue. There is an acknowledgement of the long history of who she was before the Catholic Church imposed itself on Mexico. Many say that a dark outline around the edge of the knot depicts the cloak the Virgin Mary wore when she first appeared in the New World. WebWhen he opened his cloak, the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe was miraculously present on the tilma. June 1, 2002. Accessed 11 August 2017. . Rosales concluded that the image did not originate supernaturally but was instead the work of an artist who used the materials and methods of the sixteenth century (El Vaticano 2002). The Basilica itself is one of the top tourist attractions in the country, drawing millions of visitors a year, including Pope Francis in 2016. Depiction of Our Lady of Guadalupe adorns a wall in Los Angeles, California. JUREZ, Mxico (Border Report) Mientras copos de nieve caan sobre sus espaldas, un grupo de personas en fila afuera de la Catedral de Nuestra Seora de Guadalupe en Jurez bromeaban y conversaban. They have no bearing one way or another on my personal relationship with God. She is always there for us and willing to listen., Ms. Rosas recalled one boy with lots of questions in catechism class. A sash around her waist indicates that she is expecting a child, which is a rare depiction of the Virgin Mary as pregnant. If they do nothing for you, how can they serve to disprove the existence of God? By contrast, the cult of Guadalupe was, well, local. In subtleness of form, simplicity of execution, hue and coloring, it has few equals among the masterpieces of the world. Special envoy for investigation in Honduras in 2016. I covered the beatification ceremony of today's Saint Oscar Arnulfo Romero in San Salvador, El Salvador, in 2015. You can either click on the link in your confirmation email or simply re-enter your email address below to confirm it. Powered by Invision Community. Nor are there two or three images placed one on top of the other, as some claim, he explained. After analyzing the image in 1982 and 1985 they have discovered brush strokes and paint that was used to make the image. It is preceded on December 9th by the feast of St. Juan Diego, who was canonized in 2002 by Pope St. John Paul II. What was no doubt decisive for the plans of the clerics promoting the veneration of the Virgin of Guadalupe was Alexander VIIs Apostolic Constitution Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum, promulgated on 8 December 1661, in which he sustained the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception and encouraged its celebration. One of these organizations is the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal. In the 500 years since Our Lady of Guadalupe appeared, the image of Our Lady has become the subject of several popular myths and legends, especially in Mexico, where she appeared. When Father Miguel Hidalgo launched Mexicos war of independence from Spain in 1810, his rallying cry was Long live the Virgin of Guadalupe! During the Mexican revolution, Emiliano Zapata and other fighters carried her image into battle. They arranged flowers, flags, and banners, and lined up behind vehicles bearing large images of Mexico's patron saint, Our Lady of Guadalupe. Yet while Our Lady of Guadalupe is revered, recognized, and commercialized throughout Latin America, many Americans are likely unaware of the origins and impact of her iconic status. AllRightsReserved. "Four Awesome Facts About Our Lady Of Guadalupe." The standard answer to this question in the scholarly literature of the last century or so has centered on the issue of national pride. WebAnswer (1 of 6): Given that no one has proved it, that works for me. Notarial attestations in the manuscript indicate that this Latin text was composed by Francisco de Siles, a theology professor at the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico as well as a high-ranking official in the cathedral chapter, and copied in June 1663. [5] It reads the advocacy for the Virgin of Guadalupe and the concomitant rise of literature concerning it as a forceful expression of the identity of its promoters. As far as the reflection in the eyes of the Lady, it said that the indian she visited is in the reflection. Brading 2001) suggests that, while the image was painted not long after the Spanish conquest and was alleged to have miraculous powers, the pious legend of Marys appearance to Juan Diego may date from the following century. The attack came not from secular scholars, but the very clerics who for decades watched over the Guadalupe shrine, which draws millions of pilgrims each year. Depictions of Our Lady of Guadalupe have remained consistent for centuries and she brings joy to the faithful on December 12. if you are trying to comment, you must log in or set up a new account. Registered 501(c)(3). Nickell, Joe, and John F. Fischer. Mel, v. darryl biel, as personal representative of the . He collected them in his cloak (tilma). Together, the viral items suggested that indeed a discovery of some sort had taken place in early August 2017: The Matrix Drops link was not published in 2017, but instead dates back to at least 2015. In light of its importance and the rapid growth of its devotion, the cult began to spread around the globe, carried by missionaries (especially Jesuits) as they came to new locations to spread the Gospel.[4]. One of the main problems with this period in the history of the devotion to the Virgin of Guadalupe is a lack of documentary sources. Responding to those who say they can see the word peace, on the image, Chvez said I don't see that anywhere.. ed., Tucson, AZ 2017; D.A. It may have been shared in lieu of RCatholics.com's iteration (complete with a "breaking news" graphic) which didn't even mention NASA, but had a passage claiming that it has qualities that are "humanly impossible" to replicate: Phillip Callahan, a biophysicist at the University of Florida, discovered that the differences in texture and coloration that cause cause Our Ladys skin to look different up close and far away is impossible to recreate[.]. Church Life Journal She is paid tribute year-round but most notably over two feast days. "Our ancestors are represented through her; she represents us.. She instructed him to go back to the bishop and make the request again. H`RVJ'q+:_@V|q-: h5[`P_ But it was not the flowers, unexpected as they were, that drew the Franciscans attention. Priests from the Archdiocese of Newark examined the tree and determined that the knot was a natural occurrence, said James Goodness, a spokesman for the archdiocese. Obviously enough, the most important aspect of the event is that image, miraculously created by God in the moment immediately before Juan let the flowers drop to the floor. . Check out some of the. RCatholics.com. . No one who has looked into the archives in Rome has been able to find anything. However, the legend's trajectory over the years indicated that its origins lay not with NASA, but with an unreliable and unsupported item published in 2011, three decades after Callahan's analysis appeared in print). . To have some sort of cult with concrete links to a local community was exceedingly typical. zV1bXQt4iva(vTajc'y'/~vlwtxi4 #L0CrTXkHT$_p+TZUe+e0@DR0J#"?n`QU6pxra8IXOvwijpO2R#9oI'+NcrLd`LLW iFgAyt ,1"/K}-V C)a/O & 4OEufiw. The most notable feature of the robe is its remarkable luminosity. On the back of it is a Mexican flag. When I think about them (which isn't often) they just seem remote and non-applicable to me personally. Furthermore, ther are no portratits that I have ever observed which are executed in a similar manner. Lora, the citys newly-elected mayor who is also a minister, said he could not allow the religious display to permanently occupy public ground. The Lady of Guadalupe is a piece of art created by man. WebA bomb once exploded at the foot of the tilma but failed to harm it. Its popularity was not limited solely to Europe. On one of the barricades hangs a large tapestry showing Our Lady of Guadalupe. Father Garcia, known for his role in the restoration of the San Fernando Cathedral in downtown San Antonio (as well as for raising funds to maintain the citys four historic Spanish-Indigenous missions), tells the story of a small area behind the cathedrals altara focal point after the restorationto illustrate the unshakeable devotion to Our Lady of Guadalupe. Our Lady of Guadalupe Is a Powerful Symbol of Mexican Identity, Voices: Growing Up With Our Lady Of Guadalupe. After a cry of Listos?" Roman Catholics in Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America believe that the Virgin Mary appeared to Juan Diego, an Aztec convert to Catholicism, in the 16th century. Was the image painted or fabricated by human hands? People who create sites like those claim we believe the most absurd things but it's interesting how they try to dissaprove what we believe in the w Ms. Lopez said that in 2003 she was one of thousands who saw a tree stump found in a Passaic junkyard that many believed also looked like Our Lady of Guadalupe (that shrine was vandalized in May of this year). When you subscribe to the CNA UPDATE, we'll send you a daily email with links to the news you need and, occasionally, breaking news. Many Chicana feminists see the Virgin of Guadalupe as having a connection with the pre-Columbian goddesses of Mexico. What made them believe that they could get papal recognition for their rather ordinary devotion? NASA released no research in 1979 or at any other time about the artifact, and even Callahan's believer's lens of interpretation made no claims that the materials from which it was created were of no known origin. Snopes and the Snopes.com logo are registered service marks of Snopes.com, In August 2017, NASA scientists declared that Mexico's "Our Lady of Guadalupe" artifact is "living. [quote name='Melchisedec' date='Feb 11 2005, 05:51 PM'] during a formal investigation of the cloth in 1556, it was stated that the image was "painted yesteryear by an Indian," specifically "the Indian painter Marcos." . He has written for The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Christian Science Monitor, Texas Monthly and the Huffington Post. We can't do it without youAmerica Media relies on generous support from our readers. She is the one who supports us, helps us, and protects us. At his church, there will be special masses, a serenata (serenade), matachines (dancers), a procession, and the singing of the traditional song Las Maanitas, in celebration of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Folklore Forum. Am I not here, I, who am your Mother?, Centuries later, the words of Nobel Prize-winning writer Octavio Paz vividly explored her lasting influence: After two centuries of experiment and failure, the Mexican people only believe in the Virgin of Guadalupe and the national lottery., After two centuries of experiment and failure, the Mexican people only believe in the Virgin of Guadalupe and the national lottery.. Your membership is the foundation of our sustainability and resilience. In addition, new scholarship (e.g. Fr. It is well-known that Our Lady of Guadalupe appeared to St. Juan Diego as a woman of mixed Spanish and indigenous American descent, and spoke his indigenous language, nhuatl. Among the thousands of volumes provenant from the Chigi princes library, and especially those connected to the personal collection of Pope Alexander VII (Fabio Chigi, reigned 1655-1667) is a small manuscript with a text written in Latin under the unassuming title of an historical narration of the image of Guadalupe.[6] This text is bracketed by two woodcut engravings that reproduce the image, the first at the dramatic moment of revelation and the second a faithful reproduction of the image as a whole. "Indigenista Hermeneutics And The Historical Meaning Of Our Lady Of Guadalupe Of Mexico ." The missionaries of the 16th century would never have made up a costume for a pagan goddess. Even during the time of its discovery it was explained away: My faith and beliefs are not based on these 'miracles'. [i] Password reset instructions will be sent to your registered email address. -- G.K. Chesterton. Featured Image: Taken byjc_castaneda, Con los Jovenes en Accion Guadalupana en la Calzada de los Misterios, taken on 10 December 2005; Source: Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0. [img]http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/06/Foo.jpg[/img] The Basilica is a sacred place to devout Roman Catholics, as they believe it marks the only place in the Americas visited by the Virgin Mary. Our Lady of Guadalupe has at times been utilized as a social justice icon, her image evoked by everyone from Cesar Chavez in the 1970s to immigration reform activists in the 2000s. Catholics, non-Catholics and even non-believers have found comfort in her, even when she is not on an altar or a church but emblazoned on a pair of dangling earrings or on a muscular forearm. After her own parents died and her sister became seriously ill, Ms. Rosas said that she put her in Guadalupes hands. Choking up, she added: Shes still with us. Ms. Lopez added that the difference between the two is that the one in West New York is more vivid. Based on mathematical analysis, Mexican accountant Fernando Ojeda discovered music embedded in the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Chvez explained. You have to see the image, to really appreciate what he's talking about. Personally, I don't really have feelings one way or another about the various 'miracles' of Guadelupe, Lordes, etc. The artist used a very limited palette, the expert stated, consisting of black (from pine soot), white, blue, green, various earth colors ("tierras), reds (including carmine), and gold. We are capable of marvelous things. They loved the presentations, she said, and were taught that they, too, can go before the Lady with their prayers. Nevertheless, the history of the apparitions of Guadalupe written by Francisco de Siles in 1663 is an important witness to a bold attempt by officials of a colonial church to win universal recognition for their avocation of the Blessed Mother. Reports that he would complete the canonisation next year prompted the letter from Mr Schulenburg, 83, and two other Mexican prelates, Carlos Wanholtz and Esteban Martinez. . Logging in will also give you access to commenting features on our website. I see these researchers in a lab, placing the tilma beneath infra-red lamps or carefully removing a section to dissolve and inject into a gas chromatograph. This is witchcraft; you are worshiping devils! bellowed Mr. Domenech, 50, of North Bergen, N.J. That remark prompted Maria Cole, one of dozens of people from West New York and nearby who had come to pray and lay flowers and votive candles by the tree, to charge at Mr. Domenech. Phatmass.com [2] Not surprisingly, given this situation, not a single one of these cults enjoyed recognition in the general Roman calendar, and certainly not one that concerned an apparition or a specifically associated holy image. Copyright A.D. 33. The colors are absolutely incredible - it does not look anything like a 500 year old painting on rough cloth which should have deteriorated over 400 years ago! And it doesn't have a temperature like a human being would have, he said, dispelling a common rumor about the image. One of the really strange aspects of this painting is that not only is the tilma not sized, but there is absolutely no protective coating of varnish. A shrine was indeed built, and from these humble beginnings, the devotion to the Virgin of Guadalupe among the Nahuas slowly but steadily spread, gaining in popularity so that by the middle of the seventeenth century it had firm support even among the clerical elite of Mexico City and rivaled, eventually surpassing, the devotion to Our Lady of Los Remedios in the Valley of Mexico. On Dec. 12th in towns and cities across the U.S., Latino communities are celebrating one of their most famous icons, Our Lady of Guadalupe. ]9h& f)/`=:@T15;RK;/;5%#%BV%<9,YQZ:g-;`F0n UdxeY9(h9Ca(q//|E}rbG8*In\:pD%ez QG?Oa_b]8u^D xj1pO43Rl&fV[#?v4U]M=EhR4JM2U|9;obcey:A|%o t6L`~A*2S$/|3i># aWK&y,bQ?^Jqs\k lK+( Y#*(QAy)| How is it possible that after a bomb was set off underneath it on November 14, 1921, that nothing happened to it?, The priest said that on social media people are saying that if you shine a strong light, the eyes dilate and things like that. It has been translated and adapted by CNA. 79!j#, ^8xv^KYNaqk 98Qo s1m_5[]Qr5'$$yMOer\mILs;e?E>vo`yX$0/h" QC. . February 11, 2005 in Debate Table, [b]Socrates[/b] had introduced me to the miracle of the Lady of Guadalupe. WebThe painting of Guadalupe is a parody of her image which is in Fuenterrabla Spain, which is in turn a parody of Byzantine images of decadence. Your monthly donation will help our team continue reporting the truth, with fairness, integrity, and fidelity to Jesus Christ and his Church. In August 2017, two links circulated on social media that suggested that NASA had announced it had deemed Mexico City'sOur Lady of Guadalupe tilma (a cloak or mantle made of cactus fiber upon which her face is said to be imprinted) to be "living", in that the image reacts to outside stimuli. According to tradition, she filled his cloak with roses and left an image of herself on it. The picture was also examined with a stethoscope, at which time scientists found a heart rate of 115 at her belly, corresponding to a pulse rate of a fetus. Claim: In August 2017, NASA scientists declared that Mexico's "Our Lady of Guadalupe" artifact is "living." estate of kristen biel . Two popes had even given it a Golden Rose. It had been conducted - secretly - in 1982 by art restoration expert Jos Sol Rosales. Brading, Mexican Phoenix. If you login and register your print subscription number with your account, youll have unlimited access to the website. [3] F. de Florencia, La Estrella del norte de Mexico. Melchisedec, Rosa Elia Rosas, who served as president of the Guadalupanas at San Fernando Cathedral for two years, liked telling Guadalupes story to children in catechism classes. I could not confirm that ever happened or not. In the face of centuries of devotion, ecclesiastical research and plans to make him a saint next year, Mr Schulenburg said that Diego had never existed except as a tool to convert native Americans. Sin, hell and scrupulosity: How to repent during Lent (and how not to). The apparition appeared to Juan Diego just ten years after Spains conquest of central Mexico. Buoyed with this sign, he made his way to the bishops palace. Three days later, on Dec. 12, Catholics mark her feast day at Mass. `nPU`G1#_N-0~"tVO^A Z-5OX$dNe<5s8u{W:{uz-{#;vt+b4z-4{ut|/&|#a+-Ywt),UTEj[j fr/bm;+vQjEB\J>^rK$j]gOuZ21R}qRErlEZS>4>+KdQ,i"7c jY on writs of certiorari to the united states court of appeals for the ninth circuit [july 8, 2020] justice alito delivered the opinion of the court. This is supposed to prove something? Young volunteers dressed as Juan Diego, before our Lady of Guadalupe procession in New York City. Its the shape of the Virgin Guadalupe, she marveled. dition et traduction, sous la direction de N. Balzamo, O. Christin, et F. Flckinger, Neufchtel 2015. It didn't take 500 years to figure out somebody [i]painted[/i] it. Raul A. Reyes, a lawyer, is a member of the USA Today Board of Contributors. Does the Virgin of Guadalupe float on the mantilla? Many readers may more readily recognize her European counterparts, Lourdes and Fatima, but she appeared almost 500 years ago in what is now Mexico.

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