festinger and carlsmith experiment quizlet

Kelman (1953), in the previously mentioned study, in attempting to explain the unexpected finding that the persons who complied in the moderate reward condition changed their opinion more than in the high reward condition, also proposed the same kind of explanation. The Social Comparison Theory was originally proposed by Leon Festinger in 1954. 0000013918 00000 n _____ is the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others. In a classic piece of cognitive dissonance research, researchers assigned students to different sides of a debate about the merits of college football. Among the paid participants, 5 had suspicions about getting paid for the designated task. More surprisingly, if you change a person's behavior, attitudes change to match the behavior. One S (in the One Dollar condition), immediately after having talked to the girl, demanded her phone number saying he would call her and explain things, and also told the E he wanted to wait until she was finished so he could tell her about it. In 1959, Festinger and his colleague James Carlsmith published an influential study showing that cognitive dissonance can affect behavior in unexpected ways. 2. in order to reduce dissonance. Like in every other study, there are some responses that are deemed to be invalid. What are some practical implications of cognitive dissonance theory? And, indeed, in the Control condition the average rating was -.45, somewhat on the negative side of the neutral point. Behavior that is intended to hurt or destroy another person is referred to as. Festinger and Carlsmith had predicted Research has found that the view that opposites attract, According to Sternberg, love consists of intimacy, passion, and, Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love says that companionate love consists of, Karen intentionally tries to hurt Lisa by spreading rumors about her. The present experiment was designed to test this derivation under controlled, laboratory conditions. In the process, people look at the images portrayed by others as something obtainable and realistic, and subsequently, make comparisons among themselves, others and the idealized images. This hypothetical stress brings the subject to intrinsically believe that the activity is indeed interesting and enjoyable. In the study, undergraduate students of Introductory Psychology at Stanford University were asked to take part of a series of experiments. 3. The average rating in this condition is only -.05, slightly and not significantly higher than the Control condition. Would the subject be willing to do a small favor for the experimenter? Write to Dr. Dewey at psywww@gmail.com. Leon Festinger and his colleague James This automatic assumption about the student's personality is an example of, The process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of other people is called. Assume that you were a participant in the experiment conducted by Leon Festinger and J. Merrill Carlsmith (1959), in which participants were paid either a large or small sum of money to tell an innocent stranger that the boring, tedious task you had just completed was really enjoyable and very interesting. These made them question what the real purpose of the study is. This person has two cognitions which, psychologically, do not fit together: one of these is the knowledge that he believes "X," the other the knowledge that he has publicly stated that he believes "not X." There are, after all, other ways in which the experimentally created dissonance could be reduced. In groupthink, members of the group______. We wish to thank Leonard Hommel, Judson Mills, and Robert Terwilliger for their help in designing and carrying out the experiment. Hoffer, E. (1951) The True Believer. Which of the following statements about stereotypes is FALSE? When the S arrived for the experiment on "Measures of Performance" he had to wait for a few minutes in the secretary's office. His boss, Marco, assumes that traffic was bad this morning. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like In Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) experiment in which they asked individuals to "lie" and tell the next participant how exciting the experiment turning knobs was, which group reported on a follow-up questionnaire the most satisfaction in their knob-turning experience?, The "A" in the "ABCs" of attitudes is, refer to beliefs and . We are certainly justified in concluding that the Ss in the One Dollar condition did not improvise more nor act more convincingly. Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). He hoped to exhibit cognitive dissonance in an experiment which was cleverly disguised as a performance experiment. Which situation would be last likely to result in a decrease of prejudice? Boulding, K. E. (1969) The grants economy. How would a social psychologist describe this situation? Imagine you are a participant in a famous experiment staged by the creative Festinger and his student J. Merrill Carlsmith (1959). The difference between the One and Twenty Dollar conditions reaches the .08 level of significance on a two-tailed test (t = 1.79). The discussion between the S and the girl was recorded on a hidden tape recorder. The Ss were given a very good reason, in addition to being paid, for saying what they did to the waiting girl. This study involved 71 male students from Stanford University, of which 11 students were disqualified. Sarah found her soul mate, Jon, when she moved to a small town in Florida. % He was told again to use one band and to work at his own speed. Cognitive dissonance theory implies that if you demand respect, you will get it. Boulding, K. E. (1969) The grants economy. Subjects rated this using a scale of negative 5 to positive 5 (-5 to +5). The ratings were of course done in ignorance of which condition each S was in. According to the bystander effect, Leshan is more likely to get help if there is (are)______. According to Festinger and Carlsmith, the participants experienced dissonance between the conflicting cognitions of telling someone that a particular task is interesting when the truth is, they found it rather uninteresting and boring. The interviewer, of course, was always kept in complete ignorance of which condition the S was in. The most likely predictor of the development of prejudice and discrimination between two groups is the degree of _____ between the groups. Desire to Participate in a Similar Experiment. Let us think of the sum of all the dissonances involving some particular cognition as "D" and the sum of all the consonances as "C." Then we might [p. 204] think of the total magnitude of dissonance as being a function of "D" divided by "D" plus "C.". endstream endobj startxref << Cram has partnered with the National Tutoring Association, Conformity In The Stanford Prison Experiment, Stereotypes: The Role Of Discrimination In Social Groups, Summary Of Stereotypes That Affect Social Interaction. The private opinions of the subjects concerning the experience were then determined. Festinger and Carlsmith - cognitive dissonance , Cognitive consequences of Forced Compliance. What are some practical implications of cognitive dissonance theory? Introducing Cram Folders! . Lately she has noticed that she seems to play better when there are people watching her than which she is playing alone. /O 49 if( window.canRunAds === undefined ){ When it is his turn to speak, he voices an opinion more in keeping with the previous speakers. They present some evidence, which is not altogether conclusive, in support of this explanation. The subjects were then again interviewed afterwards and were asked to rate four different areas of the experiment. In other words, a contradiction (dissonance) between attitude and behavior is uncomfortable, so it motivates a person to change behavior or attitudes (whichever is easier to change) to eliminate the contradiction. Like Explorable? /ID[<6F318BB6E8BA809AD9B6B9D834A90064><6F318BB6E8BA809AD9B6B9D834A90064>] Two Ss (both in the One Dollar condition) told the girl that they had been hired, that the experiment was really boring but they were supposed to say it was fun. Imagine 100 individuals are asked to take part in a replication of Milgram's famous study on obedience. $K{.-hC ;{l8S This manufacturer is depending on the social process of______ to increase sales. The variability is greater, however, and the differences do not yield high levels of statistical significance. hXr8=fj*!US%mfy l8oIbR0Bn t7!g] %>))BI0` 98sUx GHM. Sandy loves to play pool and has become quite good at the game. ________ describes the situation in which people attend to the content of a message. Doing so, they started to identify with the arguments and accept them as their own. Which of the following was a finding in the classic study by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)? The subjects who received $1 did not have a very good reason to lie. & JANIS, I.L. Our identity is in part created by identifying ourselves with the organization or the community for which the sacrifices have been made. show that a person's private opinion will change to reduce dissonance when it conflicts with what they are forced to do, stanford uni students were asked to do simple, boring tasks for an hour and the researchers timed them with a stopwatch and took notes to make it seem as if the task was important, the participants were given either $1 or $20 to tell another student that the task was fun, there was a clear difference of opinion in the follow up interview. He did this for one-half hour. They were not paid anything or paid 1 dollar or 20 dollars. He explained that, since they were required to serve in experiments, the department was conducting a study to evaluate these experiments in order to be able to improve them in the future. This means you're free to copy, share and adapt any parts (or all) of the text in the article, as long as you give appropriate credit and provide a link/reference to this page. Marco is using an example of. The Effects of Prejudice, Stereotype & Discrimination %%EOF He reasoned that if the person is induced to make an overt statement contrary to his private opinion by the offer of some reward, then the greater the reward offered, the greater should be the subsequent opinion change. Thus, with self-selection of who did and who did not make the required overt statement and with varying percentages of subjects in the different conditions who did make the requsted statement, no interpretation of the data can be unequivocal. endobj In this condition, the average rating was +1.35, considerably on the positive side and significantly different from the Control condition at the .02 level[2] (t = 2.48). 112 So, to avoid dissonance, the person likes you. The fact that a social role can lead to an increase in aggressive behavior points to _____as a major contributor to aggression. experiment. The______explanation of prejudice assumes that the same processes that help form other attitudes form prejudiced attitudes. The same logic applies to selfish concerns such as getting other people to respect you. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210. One might expect: that, in the Twenty Dollar condition, having been paid more, they would try to do a better job of it than in the One Dollar condition. What is the term for the process of developing an opinion about another person? With everything else held constant, this total magnitude of dissonance would decrease as the number and importance of the pressures which induced him to say "not X" increased. /Root 48 0 R The participants were experiencing cognitive dissonance because they were being asked to tell other people that the tasks were fun and interesting when, in reality, they were tedious and boring. /E 95019 Please select the correct language below. Five Ss (three in the One Dollar and two in the Twenty Dollar condition) indicated in the interview that they were suspicious about having been paid to tell the girl the experiment was fun and suspected that that was the real purpose of the experiment. Our identity is in part created by identifying ourselves with the organization or the community for which the sacrifices have been made. Some researchers believe that Milgram's results were a form of the________ technique of persuasion. are learned through experiences and contact with others, Cindy tastes peas for the first time and realizes she does not like them. On the other hand, people paid only $1 were more likely to say, when asked later, that the experiment was "not bad" or that it was "interesting.". 2. He did so in order to make it convincing that this was [p. 205] what thc E was interested in and that these tasks, and how the S worked on them, was the total experiment. If you want to dislike someone, do them wrong. A rating of how persuasive and convincing the S was in what he said and the way in which he said it. If you already know how to turn off your ad blocker, just hit the refresh icon or F5 after you do it, to see the page. The experimenter (E) then came in, introducing himself to the S and, together, they walked into the laboratory room where the E said: With no further introduction or explanation the S was shown the first task, which involved putting 12 spools onto a tray, emptying the tray, refilling it with spools, and so on. The data from the other conditions may be viewed, in a sense, as changes from this baseline. 4), we will here give only a brief outline of the reasoning. One would consequently expect to observe such opinion change after a person has been forced or induced to say something contrary to his private opinion. Comparison of the effectiveness of improvised versus non-improvised role-playing in producing opinion change. Subjects in both groups typically agreed to tell the next subject that the experiment was interesting. They were urged to cooperate in these interviews by being completely and honest. When they arrived at the interviewer's office, the E asked the interviewer whether or not he wanted to talk to the S. The interviewer said yes, the E shook hands with the S, said good-bye, and left. Festinger and Carlsmith experiment A study conducted in which people were offered money to express attitudes that they did not hold; people who were offered big sums justified their behavior by the money but people who were offered smaller sums changed their attitudes to make them more consistent with their behavior "Cognitive consequences of forced compliance". There remain, for analysis, 20 Ss in each of the thee conditions. Six chapters are new to this book; two are reprints of chapters . Festinger observed that the subjects were put in a psychologically uncomfortable position. When Gene goes out of town, he expects, in return, that Roger will water his plants. J. abnorm. The participants were asked to carry out series of monotonous tasks that were meant to be boring and nonsensical. One way in which the dissonance can be reduced is for the person to change his private opinion so as to bring it into correspondence with what he has said. You tell your roommate she probably would not have said that if she had attended class the day the instructor discussed the topic of. Since these derivations are stated in detail by Festinger (1957, Ch. First published in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210. Psych Web has over 1,000 pages, so it may be elsewhere on the site. According to Sternberg, the emotional and psychical arousal a person feels for another is the_______ component of love. These 11 Ss were, of course, run through the total experiment anyhow and the experiment was explained to them afterwards. Therefore the person's attitude changes. In this way, they propose, the person who is forced to improvise a speech convinces himself. An internet resource developed by Specifically, they showed that if a person is forced to improvise a speech supporting a point of view with which he disagrees, his private opinion moves toward the position advocated in the speech. In a crowded mall parking lot, dozens of people hear a female voice yell, "He's killing me!" Jane used ______ when receiving the officer's message. 51 0 obj They were paid a lot of money to lie, and that explained why they lied. Therefore, this appears to support Festinger's notion of cognitive dissonance as a "motivational state of affairs" (Festinger, 1962), and greatly contrasts to self-perception theory, which is defined as an individual's ability to respond differentially to his own behaviour and its controlling variables, and is a product of social interaction . Let us review these briefly: 1. He called it the Sacrifice Trap: If we once start making sacrifices for anythinga family, a religion, or a nationwe find that we cannot admit to ourselves that the sacrifices have been in vain without a threat to our personal identity. /Type/Page But when Eddie is late the next day, he blames it on heavy traffic. Sherif's 1936 study of conformity involved, asking participants to report the movement of a single point of light in a darkened room, The Challenger disaster is a classic example of groupthink because, some people knew the shuttle was not OK to launch but did not speak up and therefore disrupt group cohesion, Chris's roommate asks Chris to do him a favor, and Chris agrees. The E then removed the tray and spools and placed in front of the S a board containing 48 square pegs. The said images can be a reference to physical reality or in comparison to other people. Some have already been discussed. So they did not have to change their true attitudes. When she gets up to play it at the recital in front of 100 people, she preforms it better than she ever has. 49 0 obj In teacher Jane Elliot's classic study, the most startling finding was that the______. If a person is induced to do or say something which is contrary to his private opinion, there will be a tendency for him to change his opinion so as to bring it into correspondence with what he has done or said. What is the Sacrifice Trap? After the S agreed to do it, the E gave him the previously mentioned sheet of paper headed "For Group B" and asked him to read it through again. Based on experiments by Festinger and Carlsmith, the idea that people are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors. These Ss were treated identically in all respects to the Ss in the experimental conditions, except that they were never asked to, and never did, tell the waiting girl that the experimental tasks were enjoyable and lots of fun. New York Times, p.C1. This has many practical implications. Solomon Asch, a social psychologist conducted a series of experiments called Asch conformity to study how the behavior of a certain group influence the behav Normative conformity is most commonly referred to as peer pressure, and is prevalent in our present society. They were instructed to put spools onto and off the try with only one hand for half an hour, and then turn 48 square pegs clockwise for the next half hour. For an hour, you are required to perform dull tasks, such as turning wooden knobs again and again. To do otherwise would have been to create conflict or dissonance (lack of harmony) between their attitudes and their behavior. Subjects paid $1 were enthusiastic about their lies, and were successful in convincing others that the experiment's activities were interesting. by meredith_davis9, This project has received funding from the, You are free to copy, share and adapt any text in the article, as long as you give, Select from one of the other courses available, https://explorable.com/cognitive-dissonance, Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0), European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. At the close of the interview the S was asked what he thought the experiment was about and, following this, was asked directly whether or not he was suspicious of anything and, if so, what he was suspicious of. He then said: The E then took the S into the secretary's office where he had previously waited and where the next S was waiting. _______ occurs when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility. The stove is too large to be moved out of his way, so he has to learn not to touch it -even when Martha isn't looking. Festinger, L. & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959) Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. The influence of role-playing on opinion change. As shown in Ashes experiment, conforming to the majority happens more often than people think. "Fight acts, not feelings," is the banner of anti-racist social scientists. This is an example of which rule of attraction? Rating scale 0 to 10. Which of the following is not one of the reasons given by the text for interpersonal attraction? Festinger and Carlsmith then investigated whether there's a standing evidence of cognitive dissonance where boring tasks were seen as enjoyable. //document.getElementById('maincontent').style.display = 'none'; In Sternberg's model, intimacy, passion, and commitment are all present in, The area of the brain that controls aggressive responses is the, Zimbardo's prison experiment lasted only five days because, of the extreme effect it was having on the participants, Ryan sees a woman collapse in the mall. Michigan Academician, 1, 3-12. 80 0 obj <> endobj It was explained to them that the Department of Psychology is conducting the study and they are therefore required to serve in the experiments. If you have a negative attitude toward something, but you behave like you enjoy it, this causes dissonance. The interview consisted of four questions, on each of which the S was first encouraged to talk about the matter and was then asked to rate his opinion or reaction on an 11-point scale. 3. [p. 208] In the Twenty Dollar condition, where less dissonance was created experimentally because of the greater importance of the consonant relations, there is correspondingly less evidence of dissonance reduction. test scores of each group decreased when it was the out-group. /MediaBox[0 0 484 720] After two minutes the E returned, asked the girl to go into the experimental room, thanked the S for talking to the girl, wrote down his phone number to continue the fiction that we might call on him again in the future and then said: "Look, could we check and see if that fellow from introductory psychology wants to talk to you?". DISCUSSION. Jeff is assuming a, Cheryl got a bad grade on her test, which she attributes to the fact that she had to work overtime throughout the week and so could not study as much as usual. [2] All statistical tests referred to in this paper are two-tailed. If no factors other than his private opinion are considered it would follow, at least in our culture, that if he believes "X" he would publicly state "X." In the famous Festinger experiment, participants were paid either $1 or $20 to lie to a woman in the waiting room about how interesting the task really was. A theory of cognitive dissonance. New York: Harper & Row. Sigmund Freud believed that aggression is. The loan officer's belief is an example of_____. The greater the reward offered (beyond what was necessary to elicit the behavior) the smaller was the effect. Alex, who is in the honors program, failed to do his share of the work on the group project with his four classmates. Rating scale 0 to 10. Then the commitments get more involved, such as donations of money and moving in the with the cult members. D. It was Nicole's first year of high school. The result that the Twenty Dollar condition is actually lower than the Control condition is undoubtedly a matter of chance (t = 0.58). 0000000848 00000 n Gerard goes to his job interview dressed in patched blue jeans, a torn t-shirt, and sandals. As the E and the S started to walk to the office where the interviewer was, the E said: "Thanks very much for working on those tasks for us. 0000000015 00000 n Festinger and Carlsmith's study now began to treat the 71 subjects in different ways such as to investigate the cognitive consequences of induced compliance to see whether there would be any evidence of Cognitive Dissonance, where the student concerned was psychologically di-stressed between his actual views and the role he found himself taking Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-211. Which is (farther, farthest) away, the library of the park? Shawn and Tanya start talking after they've ridden on the dorm elevator several times together. Which communicator would likely be most persuasive? These results are the ones most directly relevant to the specific dissonance which we experimentally created It will be recalled that the tasks were purposely arranged to be rather boring and monotonous. %%EOF What term refers to helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of another person, which no anticipation of reward? FESTINGER, L. A theory of cognitive dissonance.

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