how are identity and communication related

As competent communicators and critical thinkers, we must challenge ourselves to be aware of how racism influences our communication at individual and societal levels. Dominant identity formation may include a person moving from unawareness of their identities, to accepting the identity hierarchy, to separation from and guilt regarding the dominant group, to redefining and integrating components of identities. Talking into a tin can with a string to another tin can. For example, there has been a Deaf culture movement in the United States for decades. It contends that group members tend to emphasize similarities among themselves according to stereotypical attributes or prototypes rather than accentuate differences along these same dimensions between the ingroup and other outgroups in an effort to bolster ingroup identity. From what youve learned so far in this book, what communication skills are important for a diversity trainer to have? Just like race, gender is a socially constructed category. London: Routledge. Psychological noise. The US Constitution does not stipulate a national language, and Congress has not designated one either. There is resistance to classifying ability as a cultural identity, because we follow a medical model of disability that places disability as an individual and medical rather than social and cultural issue. People change over time - realize unfamiliar and embrace new identities. If she studies abroad in Africa her junior year, she may be ascribed an identity of American by her new African friends rather than African American. Instead of duplicating information in your system, you'll maintain the . This system is based on the ideology of patriarchy, which is a system of social structures and practices that maintains the values, priorities, and interests of men as a group (Wood, 2005). Dominant groups tend to define what is correct or incorrect usage of a language, and since language is so closely tied to identity, labeling a groups use of a language as incorrect or deviant challenges or negates part of their identity (Yancy, 2011). You may find that someone identifies as Chinese American or Korean American instead of Asian American. See Table 3.3 Developments Related to Ability, Identity, and Communication for a timeline of developments related to ability, identity, and communication. In verbal communication you might say Latina when referring to a particular female or Latino when referring to a particular male of Latin American heritage. Gender inequalities are also evident in the administrative structure of schools, which puts males in positions of authority more than females. How you communicate to and about someone can influence how they perform their identity or how it develops 2. Race and communication are related in various ways. Leaders in the fast-growing fields of sociology and psychology argued that women were less evolved than men and had more in common with children and savages than an adult (white) males (Allen, 2011). Many hearing-impaired people in the United States use American Sign Language (ASL), which is recognized as an official language. Sometimes clear communication is even the cause of problems. While its obvious to most people that colors arent gendered, they take on new meaning when we assign gendered characteristics of masculinity and femininity to them. The relational aspect of the communication. Collier, M. J., Communication Competence Problematics in Ethnic Friendships, Communication Monographs 63, no. Edited by S. Worchel and W. Austin, 724. Sexual desires Both groups may be restrained from communicating about difference due to norms of political correctness, which may make people feel afraid to speak up because they may be perceived as insensitive or racist. Sumner, W.G. 1906. The history of immigration in the United States also ties to the way that race has been constructed. The Vermont Supreme Court rules that the state must provide legal rights to same-sex couples. This becomes problematic when we realize that standard English refers to a way of speaking English that is based on white, middle-class ideals that do not match up with the experiences of many. The linear communication model is most like: Dont be afraid to ask questions when youre unsure of what to do. b. we engage others in conversation. Our membership may be voluntary (Greek organization on campus) or involuntary (family) and explicit (we pay dues to our labor union) or implicit (we purchase and listen to hip-hop music). All of these are discussed in the chapter. All of these choices are correct. While females make up 75 percent of the educational workforce, only 22 percent of superintendents and 8 percent of high school principals are women. When talking with a person with a disability, speak directly to that person rather than through a companion or sign-language interpreter. Folkways. For example, I have had students who struggle to see that they are in this stage say things like I know that racism exists, but my parents taught me to be a good person and see everyone as equal. While this is admirable, seeing everyone as equal doesnt make it so. So many people prefer a term like gay, which was chosen and embraced by gay people, rather than homosexual, which was imposed by a then discriminatory medical system. Sexual orientation describes the group of people to whom this attraction is directed. For example, think of how ways of being and acting have changed for African Americans since the civil rights movement. Communication: When I teach courses about gender, I often ask my students to raise their hand if they consider themselves feminists. With the emergence of the Metaverse technology, more stringent demands are required in terms of connectivity such as secure access and data privacy. It is from these cultural influences that our identities are formed. Among her many publications is a groundbreaking book - Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity , 3rd. If you offer assistance, wait until the offer is accepted. If necessary, ask short questions that require short answers, a nod, or a shake of the head. Since we are often a part of them since birth, cultural identities are the least changeable of the three. This means that messages we receive from others (who they think we are) influence who we think we are. Currently, the terms African American and black are frequently used, and both are considered acceptable. I do think women should have the same kinds of rights, including equal pay for equal work. Sex is based on biological characteristics, including external genitalia, internal sex organs, chromosomes, and hormones (Wood, 2005). The relational aspect of the communication. There is no such thing as the "same" message; words and behaviors are different each time they are spoken or performed. Individuals were allowed to choose more than one racial category for the first time in census history. Men have been treated as the generic human being to which others are compared. Having taught about various types of privilege for years, Ive encountered many students who want to return their privilege or disown it. Some organizations are going further than legal compliance to try to create inclusive climates where diversity is valued because of the interpersonal and economic benefits it has the potential to produce. People in the redefinition stage revise negative views of their identity held in the previous stage and begin to acknowledge their privilege and try to use the power they are granted to work for social justice. Another national controversy has revolved around the inclusion of Spanish in common language use, such as Spanish as an option at ATMs, or other automated services, and Spanish language instruction in school for students who dont speak or are learning to speak English. Blogging Arguments supporting racial inequality and tighter immigration restrictions also drew on notions of disability, framing certain racial groups as prone to mental retardation, mental illness, or uncontrollable emotions and actions. Tajfel 1981 is a notable work because it provides valuable insights into how Tajfels growth and development as a scholar, as well as his collaboration with Turner and others, eventually gave rise to social identity theory. Then, circle the word Corporate communication is the perception of a company by creating a brand identity and maintaining communication with the general public. The terms colored and Negro are no longer considered appropriate because they were commonly used during a time when black people were blatantly discriminated against. 27. The essential way to live in societies and to maintain one's culture is to communicate. Source: Adapted from Brenda J. Allen, Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity (Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2011), 7172. The focus is on the interplay between personal and social identity and the key innovation in this study is self-categorization theory, which postulates that individuals tend to both accentuate similarities between themselves and other ingroup members on certain stereotypical attributes associated with the group (prototypes) and exaggerate differences along these same dimensions among members of outgroups. In fact, we also place people into in-groups and out-groups based on the similarities and differences we perceive. During the early part of the 1900s, the eugenics movement was the epitome of the move to rehabilitate or reject people with disabilities (Allen, 2005). The eugenics movement in the United States begins. In common predicament: Social psychology of intergroup conflict and cooperation. Our identities make up an important part of our self-concept and can be broken down into three main categories: personal, social, and cultural identities (see Table 8.1 Personal, Social, and Cultural Identities). Heterosexual people with gay family members or friends may join the group PFLAG (Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays) as a part of the redefinition and/or integration stage of their dominant identity development. Spreckels, J. and Helga Kotthoff, Communicating Identity in Intercultural Communication, in Handbook of Intercultural Communication, eds. By looking at history, we can see how cultural identities that seem to have existed forever actually came to be constructed for various political and social reasons and how they have changed over time. Sherif, M. 1966. For example, MC Frontalot, a leader in the nerdcore hip-hop movement, says that being branded a nerd in school was terrible, but now he raps about nerdy things like blogs to sold-out crowds (Shipman, 2007). In the conformity stage, an individual internalizes or adopts the values and norms of the dominant group, often in an effort not to be perceived as different. You may see a person who likes to read science-fiction books, watches documentaries, has glasses, and collects Star Trek memorabilia and label him or her a nerd. Dominant identities historically had and currently have more resources and influence, while nondominant identities historically had and currently have less resources and influence. In this classic work, the author establishes the term ethnocentrism and employs structural-functional theory to explain intergroup conflict, suggesting that scarcity of natural resources serves as a primary source of conflict between groups. Turner, J.C. 1985. Most notably, it introduces ideas about strategic behavioral responses by groups when confronted with a lack of positive distinctiveness. There was a movement in the 1960s to reclaim the word black, and the slogan black is beautiful was commonly used. True The only we learn who we are is through communication. A commitment to a diverse and inclusive workplace environment must include a multipronged approach. In some Southern states, Italian immigrants were forced to go to black schools, and it wasnt until 1952 that Asian immigrants were allowed to become citizens of the United States. In short, KALW was looking to achieve much greater recognition across its Bay Area audiences, communicate its unique offerings and expand its membership base. Although they are not given their own section, consider how those identities may intersect with the identities discussed next. 4 (1996): 318. If a sentence contains an agreement error, underline the incorrect pronoun or verb and write the correct word or words above it. What would a person who looked at this list be able to tell about you? In addition, identity and communication are mutually reinforcing. Provides flexibility for integration scenarios. Meanings have limited interpretation. Let's look at some of the ways that identity influences communication. Adopting the language practices of the dominant group may minimize perceived differences. Tajfel, H., and J.C. Turner. Why or why not. By 2030, racial and ethnic minorities will account for one-third of the population (Allen, 2011). The phrase people of color is acceptable for most and is used to be inclusive of other racial minorities. It is the first gay rights organization. d. Instrumental goals. The feminist movement also gave some momentum to the transgender rights movement. If so, what did you learn or take away from the training? Sexuality is also biological in that it connects to physiological functions that carry significant social and political meaning like puberty, menstruation, and pregnancy. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on It is important, however, that we not let political correctness get in the way of meaningful dialogues and learning opportunities related to difference. Depending on the region or country, some people primarily trace their lineage to the indigenous people who lived in these areas before colonization, or to a Spanish and indigenous lineage, or to other combinations that may include European, African, and/or indigenous heritage. Individuals with dominant identities may not validate the experiences of those in nondominant groups because they do not experience the oppression directed at those with nondominant identities. Table 3.2 Developments Related to Sexuality, Identity, and Communication. If so, what are your uncertainties? The flip side of emphasizing difference is to claim that no differences exist and that you see everyone as a human being. However, the overall trend is that difference based on cultural groups has been institutionalized, and exceptions do not change this fact. For example, a person may be attracted to men, women, both or neither. Businesses in the United States spend $200 to $300 million a year on diversity training, but is it effective? For example, I once taught at a private university that was predominantly white. Computer-mediated communication (CMC) includes which of the following? Then we attempt to construct that gendered identity through our interactions with others, which is our gender expression. Students who did not speak English as a first language, for example, wereand perhaps still aresometimes put into special education classes. The roles assigned to those involved. Would knowing the Ten Commandments for Communicating with People with Disabilities have influenced how you communicated in this instance? The way we communicate about race in our regular interactions has also changed, and many people are still hesitant to discuss race for fear of using the wrong vocabulary. Regarding interpersonal versus impersonal communication, your textbook asks, "Is interpersonal communication better than impersonal communication?" As we will discuss later, privilege and disadvantage, like similarity and difference, are not all or nothing. No two people are completely different or completely similar, and no one person is completely privileged or completely disadvantaged. Cultural identities are based on socially constructed categories that teach us a way of being and include expectations for social behavior or ways of acting (Yep, G. A., 2002). Discuss the ways in which difference may influence how you communicate in each of the following contexts: academic, professional, and personal. Why do you think the person ascribed the identity to you? The rarity of personal relationships is not necessarily unfortunate. Two related but distinct components of our identities are our personal and social identities (Spreckels, J. b. 4. & Kotthoff, H., 2009). Doctors and other decision makers like politicians also used womens menstrual cycles as evidence that they were irrational, or hysterical, and therefore couldnt be trusted to vote, pursue higher education, or be in a leadership position. Individuals in this stage may also actively try to separate themselves from the dominant group, interacting only with those who share their nondominant identity. Social identities do not change as often because they take more time to develop, as you must become interpersonally invested. (Vedantam, 2008) If diversity training is conducted to advance a companys business goals and out of an understanding of the advantages that a diversity of background and thought offer a company, then the training is more likely to be successful. However, as we will learn later, developing intercultural communication competence can help us gain new perspectives, become more mindful of our communication, and intervene in some of these negative cycles. As was noted earlier, the Latino/a population in the United States is growing fast, which has necessitated inclusion of Spanish in many areas of public life. Greenwich, CT: JAI. In the resistance and separation stage, an individual with a nondominant identity may shift away from the conformity of the previous stage to engage in actions that challenge the dominant identity group. Medical advances have allowed some people with disabilities to live longer and more active lives than before, which has led to an increase in the number of people with disabilities. This occurs, they argue, as individuals categorize themselves into a social group (social categorization), adopt the identity of that group (social identification), and engage in comparisons with other social groups (social comparison). a. Although some identities are essentially permanent, the degree to which we are aware of them, also known as salience, changes. This is a critically important piece in the development of social identity theory during the 1980s. Although Spain colonized much of what is now South and Central America and parts of the Caribbean, the inhabitants of these areas are now much more diverse. Tatum, B. D., The Complexity of Identity: Who Am I? in Readings for Diversity and Social Justice, eds. The integrated class was designed to meet the growing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics communication needs and the fundamental Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the National Communication Association student outcomes . The following sentence may contain a subject-verb or pronoun-antecedent agreement error. Currently, the primary racial groups in the United States are African American, Asian American, European American, Latino/a, and Native American, but a brief look at changes in how the US Census Bureau has defined race clearly shows that this hasnt always been the case (see Table 3.1 Racial Classifications in the US Census). The authors explain how language learning can open up possibilities for identity expansion and also delve into . Chapter 1: Introduction to Communication Studies, Chapter 6: Interpersonal Communication Processes, Chapter 7: Communication in Relationships, Chapter 11: Informative and Persuasive Speaking, Chapter 12: Public Speaking in Various Contexts, Chapter 14: Leadership, Roles, and Problem Solving in Groups, Chapter 15: Media, Technology, and Communication, Table 8.1 Personal, Social, and Cultural Identities, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1615183,00.html, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/census-data-reveals-changed-american-landscape/story?id=13206427, http://www.opm.gov/hrd/lead/policy/divers97.asp#PART%20B, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/01/19/AR2008011901899_pf.html, Next: 8.2 Exploring Specific Cultural Identities, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. As you will see in the timeline that follows, the medical community has a recent history of treating homosexuality with means that most would view as inhumane today. US Office of Personnel Management, Guidelines for Conducting Diversity Training, Training and Development Policy, accessed October 16, 2011, http://www.opm.gov/hrd/lead/policy/divers97.asp#PART%20B.

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