how did the french alliance contribute to the american revolution

A few days later Louis XVI made the United States a loan of 2,000,000 livres. The Declaration was passed with independence a hope on the far side of a hopeless-seeming war. He radiated reassurance like one of his own stoves; the warmth and charm of his personality masked his Merlin powers. Franklin had already urged that France and Spain conclude treaties of amity and commerce with the United States, and his letter went farther, offering these powers a firm guarantee of their present possessions in the West Indies, plus any new islands they conquered in a war growing out of their aid to the United States. George III was delighted and directed Lord North to stress in Parliament this proof of Frances intention to keep appearances. The next step would be to force France to deliver Conyngham to Britain for hanging as a pirate. The Franco-American alliance was the 1778 alliance between the Kingdom of France and the United States during the American Revolutionary War.Formalized in the 1778 Treaty of Alliance, it was a military pact in which the French provided many supplies for the Americans.The Netherlands and Spain later joined as allies of France; Britain had no European allies. Edward Bancroft had been in British pay since 1772. With great fanfare Lee proposed to make Prussia a second France. This wealthy and devoted young Marylander had been educated in England and was qualified for diplomatic assignments. Franklin and Morris could hardly have believed Captain Wickes news on his return to Philadelphia if a courier had not come back from Europe at the same time with even more wonderful tidings. George III was uneasy about both Americans because they gambled wildly in stocks and kept mistresses. Naval affairs were stagnant; the privateers attracted all the able seamen. A growing fleet of American privateers had already brought prizes into the various French ports, and a system had been perfected for their disposal. Above all we needed an ally. A member of the Royal College of Physicians, in 1773 he was elected to the Royal Society under the sponsorship of Franklin, the astronomer royal, and the kings physician. The first move was to eliminate Franklin and Deane by creating a scandal in Congress about their peculation of public funds. The American Revolution of 1775-1789, which concluded as the revolution in France was unfolding, was perhaps the most significant. Temple Franklin was only seventeen, but he was working out well as his grandfathers personal secretary, patiently making several copies of important papers to be sent on different ships bound for home in the hope that at least one copy would arrive safely. Every Tuesday evening an agent of Stormont would pick up the letter and leave another with new instructions. 1778-1782. America could fight only her own sort of war on the seas, and this had started before Lexington and would continue long after Yorktown. Arthur Lees secretary, Major John Thornton, was not only British but British secret service. After this momentous decision of December 17, Deanes meeting with Wentworth was a decided anticlimax. Among the papers was Lees private journal with a log of his Spanish transactions and details of every move made by the Paris mission up to that June. Because the future could somehow work in him he had become the sort of man coming generations would repeat. It inspired the French to launch their own revolution for liberty and equality. From 1790 to 1794, the revolutionaries grew increasingly radical. But the, In a few swift parries Franklin suggested what his technique of dealing with the ministry would be. Bancroft was still the mission confidant at Passy; certain Americans who sat at Deanes dinner table reported on ship movements to the British secret service, and Captain Joseph Hynson, who happened to be Lambert Wickess stepbrother, stole an entire pouch of dispatches intended for Congress, which contained all the secret correspondence between the mission and the French ministry for the last eight months. Little Benny Bache would be put in school to learn French, and Temple Franklin would act as his grandfathers unpaid secretary. Hundreds of privateers were at their work of economic attrition, wearing down Britains strength by blows against her merchant shipping. His discretion was fathomless, and he may purposely have avoided emphasizing his old friendship with the man who carried out some of the ministrys most secret work for America. The Revolution precipitated a series of European wars, forcing the United States to articulate a clear policy of neutrality in order to avoid being embroiled in these European conflicts. The Passy household was complete when the wise and enchanting Edward Bancroft arrived to act as general secretary of the mission. During the American Revolution, the American colonies faced the significant challenge of conducting international diplomacy and seeking the international support it needed to fight against the British. Compare And Contrast The American Revolution And French Revolution. Bancroft had sped to London, mainly to make a killing on the stock market, but he would not fail to bring George III the bad news. Whenever Stormont got good evidence that France was shipping contraband to America or admitting American prizes to her ports, he drove to Versailles to make a formal protest. The next day the Crown Council decided to conclude the alliance, and Vergennes rushed word to Passy that France would carry out her secret agreement of December 17 and fight at Americas side until her independence was won. Join, or Die, the first political cartoon in America, was created by Benjamin Franklin and was published in a newspaper on May 9, 1754.The cartoon later became a symbol of colonial unity during the American Revolution and remains popular. He had to fend off a break with England until France was ready for war. Arthur Lee was rewarded by memories of turmoil, which he loved and which he was expert in creating. A new nation had emerged, and in time each individual would realize his new identity. Franklin took charge of diplomatic duties, Arthur Lee undertook missions to Spain and Prussia which happily kept him out of Paris at a crucial period, and Deane continued his commercial activities. He refused to sign the final peace treaty with England until all American prisoners were released. The French Revolution also influenced U.S. politics, as pro- and anti- Revolutionary factions sought to . Britain won the Seven Years War and imposed the Peace of Paris which bred the next cycle of conflict with the Continental powers. Both revolutions began due to the financial problems in their countries. France's prolonged involvement in the Seven Years' War of 1756-1763 drained the treasury, as did the country's participation in the American Revolution of 1775-1783. The involvement of France in the American War of Independence (1775-1783) was not only significant in the progress of the war itself but also as a critical moment for France. Besides, five British warships blockaded the harbor. Monticello Guide Olivia Brown looks at Jefferson's reaction to this momentous event and the small but significant role he played in it. Franklin soon warned Congress not to enlarge its connections with this questionable pair. Apprehensive as he was about Britain, Vergennes risked war to release Captain Wickes and Captain Henry Johnson, who had sailed in company with him on the Irish cruise, from their long protective arrest in port. On the surface Deanes rapid rise might seem the result of clever opportunism in marrying and winning the friendship of the right people. But the early ratio of seven British merchantmen captured to one American lost was rapidly declining, and Britains patrol of the seaboard was making it difficult to maintain a supply line of military and civilian goods. Franklin found that the American stock had lately plunged to its lowest point. To the citizens of Nantes the alliance was not merely a commercial bond, but a blend of credos and enthusiasms which they shared with their friends overseas. Resentful over the loss of its North American empire after the French and Indian War, France welcomed the opportunity to undermine Britain's position in the New World. The chief French ammunition dumps were Martinique and Cap Franois (now Cap Haitien) on Santo Domingo, known to seagoing Americans simply as the Cape. The Spanish shipped to New Orleans and Havana, and the British chose islands convenient to Washingtons chief arsenal, the Dutch island of St. Eustatia. The Doctor was adept at working through trusted friends, and his friends were legion. Masonry was powerful in France and all-powerful in Nantes, and for perhaps a generation its exporters had been sending American brothers, along with bills of lading and business papers, sheaves of French Masonic literature in exchange for similar pamphlets from the colonies. After Lees visit he proffered no more aid and listened to Floridablanca. In 1776, the Continental Congress sent diplomat Benjamin Franklin, along with Silas Deane and Arthur Lee, to France to secure a formal alliance. Instead of using direct pressure he used leverage. He spent much of the latter half of 1776 in Paris as mentor to the inexperienced American, and the close friendship thus begun lasted as long as Deane lived. The destinations given were usually French ports on the Channel, and the ostensible purpose was the sudden enormous need for arms in the French slave trade. It was a fine moment for his debut. Perhaps the greater part of Edward Bancroft was truly American. Franklins most pressing assignment was to buy or borrow eight battleships from France and to urge both Bourbon powers, France and Spain, to send fleets at their own expense to act in concert with these ships. When Vergenness orders came through to sell the Revenge , nobody was alarmed. took place in France and India. Similar to MORE Between 1778 and 1782 the French provided supplies, arms and ammunition, uniforms, and, most importantly, troops and naval support to the beleaguered Continental Army. After the Seven Years' War, Britain found itself in about twice as much debt . The Committee of Secret Correspondence, under Franklin, engaged agents abroad to explore the possibilities of foreign alliances. The conversation continued with this sort of exchange, and Franklin kept it going for two hours. The new physiocratic school had its followers on both sides of the Atlantic. Secret aid was no longer sufficient, he argued, for the British claimed that the policy of the Bourbons was to destroy England by means of the Americans, and America by means of the British. The fight for American independence piqued the interest of Europe's most powerful colonial powers. A.) It was run, personally and in great detail, by George III himself, who spent hours reading the reports of agents scattered over America, the West Indies, and Europe. When Franklin came to the signing . Bancroft was to report on the movements of American privateers and trading vessels in European waters, and relations between the West Indies and continental America. This move had been made after Franklin left Philadelphia, and the bad news would not reach Paris for months. Copyright 1949-2022 American Heritage Publishing Co. All Rights Reserved. By 1763, France had suffered a crushing defeat in the Seven Years' War (more commonly called the "French and Indian War" in the U.S.), losing all its claims to mainland Canada and the Louisiana Territory. In a word, Franklin laid the cornerstone of American foreign relations, and for a long time to come American treaties would be modeled on these first ones with France. Spain had ceased her royal aids to America. There were sixty-odd American merchants established in Nantes, and when Franklin considered that all this activity was being repeated on a somewhat smaller scale in Bordeaux, Lorient, Le Havre, and Dunkirk, he felt that the Franco-American alliance was already a reality. Behind the benevolent smile lurked the master of intrigue, skillfully maneuvering the vacillating courts of Europe. Much paper would be required for their letter campaign, and a spate of words would cover their omission of proofs. Captain Wickes, who had been one of the picked men of Morris trading fleet, was chosen for the voyage. The American Revolution. The Declaration of Independence served as a model for the French Revolution. Though facing insurmountable odds, the underdog naval forces of the young United States proved their savvy by helping to defeat Great Britain in the War for Independence. Deane was up to his neck in business affairs and was essential to their success, for Tom Morris was clearly unfit to carry out any operation but commandeering cargoes from Congress to finance his endless debauch. They all hated and feared Britain as the newly dominant nation of Europe. Little Benny Bache would be put in school to learn French, and Temple Franklin would act as his grandfathers unpaid secretary. Representatives of the French and American governments signed the Treaty of Alliance and a Treaty of Amity and Commerce on February 6, 1778. The warehouses lining her one street, a mile long, were crammed with munitions, ships stores, bolts of cloth; sacks of sugar and tobacco covered the very sands, and the roadstead was packed with merchantmen. For months, in fact, Franklin and Deane had slipped away in the evening for conferences with the minister, and Lee spread the word that the Doctor was having an affair with some French beauty. By early 1775 the British embassy in France estimated that war supplies worth 32,000,000 livres (about $6,000,000) had been shipped from that kingdom to the colonies. Late in October, 1776, Benjamin Franklin sailed for France to direct the foreign sector of the extraordinary war into which his young country had been plunged. A young girl began having strange fits. Hortalez & Company now became what it had always pretended to bea private concernand he kept on sending supplies to the United States until after Yorktown. French Empire wanted to take revenge on the British Empire for its defeat in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763). Stormont was instructed to tell Vergennes that the Rebels game was up. Privateers could accomplish wonders, but they could not fight the great British ships of the line. Only a frayed rope anchored the nations to peace, and Franklin believed that an implement lay ready to hand which would saw through the hawser. British firms had also been running munitions to the colonies, and continued to do so, despite orders-in-council. And the French people, cheering in the streets and squares, were as proud of Saratoga, he wrote home, as if it had been a Victory of their own Troops over their own Enemies.. On July 23 he wrote a memoir to Louis XVI declaring that the moment had come when France must resolve either to abandon America or to aid her courageously and effectively. He urged a closer alliance to prevent a reunion of Britain and America. This well-connected young man had been sent direct from Congress to buy two ships to serve as packets for the mission. Every step in preparing the lugger for a cruise was watched by the British in Dunkirk. Beaumarchais was with the three commissioners when the official messenger arrived. Franklins hosts were the merchants Pliarne and Penet, who had little standing in Nantes, but who may have been subsidized by Vergennes. There was no mention of payment. What was the main purpose of the Stamp Act Congress? Morris was as stubborn as George III about refusing to believe bad news, but when he was finally convinced of his mistake he was full of contrition. But somehow, even when he acted in a cheap way, Silas Deane was not cheap. Now the picture had entirely changed, and Spain hoped to make peace with the new king on the Portuguese throne. This theft was not discovered until the pouch was opened in America and proved to contain nothing but the blank paper substituted by Hynson. As soon as Arthur Lee arrived from London the three commissioners wrote Vergennes announcing their appointment to negotiate a treaty of amity and commerce with France. The American people had shown their power. The Virginia delegates differed upon his appointment. They asked that frigates be sent over by August to cruise against Englands Baltic trade and attack the British Isles. Sitting together in Deanes hotel while the crowds outside waited for a glimpse of their idol, the two men were already dreading the arrival of Arthur Lee as their colleague. The King was tireless, and only the quirks and massive stubbornness which were part of his psychosis would now and then hamper the working of his great information machine. As a past master in the art of making the other man feel that he was acting solely for him, Vergennes recognized this basic technique in diplomacy. It began with the bold request that France sell the United States eight ships of the line, On January 24 Wickes sailed out of Nantes with a French pilot and several French seamen aboard, strengthening the desired impression of collusion with Versailles. Bancroft is entirely an American and every word he used on the late occasion was to deceive; perhaps they think Mr. Wentworth has been sent from motives of fear and if that is Franklins opinion the whole conduct he has shewn, is wise and to me it [unravels] what other ways would appear inexplicable.. Wentworth reported to Eden that he had found Deane vain, desultory and subtle and indeed the commissioner must have had some difficulty keeping a straight face. People heavily associate the French Revolution with the American Revolution, due to the many general similarities. All the colonizing powers tried to keep New World produce flowing home to the motherland.

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