is xhosa a khoisan language

For instance, they can be aspirated, nasalised and glottalised. The Khoisan languages (/ksn/; also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a number of African languages once classified together, originally by Joseph Greenberg. Rafiki, the sagely mandrill chants Xhosa on The Lion King and its reboot. Christian missionaries during the early 19th century. Prenasalisation occurs in several contexts, including on roots with the class 9 prefix /iN-/, for example on an adjective which is feature-matching its noun: /iN- + / [int] "beautiful" (of a class 9 word like inja "dog"). Xhosa, Zulu, Ndelebele and Swati share most of their basic vocabulary as well as grammar. Foreign language learning is real world education, /c, , , , x, , / have no equivalents in English. The branches that were once considered part of so-called Khoisan are now considered independent families, since it has not been demonstrated that they are related according to the standard comparative method. As an example, the composition of the verb In the sentence Un-ntwana u-ya-wa-sel-a ama-nzi One child drinks water is shown below. For much of the 20th century, they were thought to be genealogically related to each other, but this is no longer accepted. Even though the sound structure of the Khoisan languages is unique, their resemblance to each other in this respect has not provided the evidence needed to unravel all their internal genetic affiliations, let alone their relationships to other African languages. The language is marked by the large number of click consonant sounds used. All rights reserved. The orthographic b in mb is the voiced plosive [mb]. Most of the languages are endangered, and several are moribund or extinct. These famous click sounds are found in Khoisan languages (alternative names include Khoesaan or Khoesan). By distribution over land, Xhosa is the most widely spoken African language (while Zulu is most widely spoken in terms of population). The pocket of air produced by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by the sucking action of the tongue. (Their numbers have been included under Nama above.) An alveolar click sounds like the popping of a cork made by putting the tongue just behind the ridge in back of the front teeth. In Voeltz, Erhard Friedrich Karl (ed.)., A room filled with great minds, sharing a valuable outlook on living the legacy of the @NelsonMandela Foundation. English. Let me know using thecomments section below or join me on social media to start a conversation. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Those who speak this language typically form part of the ethnic group called the amaXhosa and refer to their language as isiXhosa. On external genealogical relationships of the Khoe family. The Khoisan languages ( / ksn /; also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a number of African languages once classified together, originally by Joseph Greenberg. It is also "Names of Khoisan languages and Their Variants." #VisitSouthAfrica, Hello Cape Town All education at the university level is in English or Afrikaans. The pocket of air produced by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by the sucking action of the tongue. This click is like the sound people make to call horses. Marking of the plural number depends on the noun class. These sounds were borrowed from the Khoisan languages of the original inhabitants of the area. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. Mwani, The Juhoan language has 48 click consonants among nearly as many non-click consonants, strident and pharyngealized vowels, and four tones. All Rights Reserved. Makhuwa, The first is dental clicks with the tongue pressing against the back of the teeth. Learn the local language with her 80/20 method for less than the cost of eating at a tourist trap restaurant Start learning today! In the International Phonetic Alphabet, clicks are represented by placing the assigned symbol for the place of click articulation to the left of a symbol for a nonclick sound at the same place of articulation. The Xhosa themselves are somewhat ambivalent about the use of their language in education. Tower of Babel | The origin of clicks remains a mystery. The chart below (taken from Some elements of the structure of the Xhosa verb) shows some of the possible slots for prefixes and suffixes. Amongs, South African Tourism's initiatives and projects within the "growing green economy" are highlighted through partner, Were proud and excited to be associated with @CapeTownEprix in hosting the first ABB FIA Formula E World champions, It is great to hear you are feeling our vibe Mpho! Fang, [3] Ethnically, their speakers are the Khoikhoi and the San (Bushmen). Photography and infographics cannot be used without permission.Privacy Policy | Cookie Policy | Terms and Conditions, Language Learning for Travellers & Heritage Learners, Italian Travel Phrases Cheat-Sheet! A dental click sounds like tsk, tsk! In this case, Xhosa means 'angry men'. According to this hypothesis, clicks might have originally served as onomatopoetic imitations of naturally occurring sounds. [8] Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 10 million people and as a second language by another 11 million, mostly in South Africa, particularly in Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Northern Cape and Gauteng, and also in parts of Zimbabwe and Lesotho. The debate about these relationships remains a prominent feature in the linguistic study of Khoisan languages, and the disagreements that sustain it have never been satisfactorily resolved. A member of a Bantu people inhabiting the eastern part of Cape Province, South Africa. Nama, the largest Khoisan language, is officially recognized in Namibia and is taught at universities. Tonga, They are descended from the Nguni, who began migrating south from central and northern Africa more than a thousand years ago. 1991). They are typologically very similar to the Kxa languages (below), but have not been demonstrated to be related to them genealogically (the similarities may be an areal feature). The Khoisan language family is the smallest of the language families of Africa. tsk! Xhosa (formerly spelled Xosa) is an official language of South Africa, natively spoken by around 7.9 million people which is about around 16% of the population of South Africa. It forms part of the ornamentation that reflects the different stages of a womans life. The Khoisan languages were once spoken across all of southern Africa from southern Angola in the west to Swaziland in the east and the Cape of Good Hope in the south (see the map). The Khoe family appears to have migrated to southern Africa not long before the Bantu expansion. Southern Ndebele, The word "Xhosa" is derived from the Khoisan language and means "angry men". This site is not affiliated with any government entity associated with a name similar to the site domain name. document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. nangokweemfanelo. South African Culture and Tradition Explored. Loma, Download your free PDF guide with 125 Italian travel phrases. Their most distinctive linguistic characteristic is the original and extensive use of click consonants, a feature which has spread through cultural and linguistic contact into a number of Bantu (Niger-Congo) languagessuch as Xhosa, Zulu, and Sotho in South Africa and Gciriku (Diriku), Yei (Yeye), and Mbukushu in Botswana and Namibiaand into Dahalo, a Cushitic (Afro-Asiatic) language of Kenya. Thus, a more correct spelling isKhoesaan. This came about because South African actor John Kani, a native of the Eastern Cape province who plays Wakandan King T'Chaka, speaks Xhosa and suggested that the directors of the fictional Civil War incorporate a dialogue in the language. A certain headdress will be a worn by a newly married girl, while a woman who has just given birth to her first child will wear a different, Xhosa beliefs recognise the presence of ancestral spirits and a supreme authority. Contact Us, 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. The Khoe family is both the most numerous and diverse family of Khoisan languages, with seven living languages and over a quarter million speakers. In all of the Southern African Khoisan languages, a simple rule applies to using the sound. Xhosa verbs are highly inflected. They write new content and verify and edit content received from contributors. Southern Khoisan languages have a very high ratio of words containing clicks as compared to those that do not contain them. Languages Gulper/Khoisan Peoples/About World Languages/Wikipedia/The Week. Of these languages, Xhosa, Zulu, Ndebele and Yeyi have intricate systems of click consonants; the others, despite the click in the name Gciriku, more rudimentary ones. Clicks Because Xhosa and Zulu are both classed as Bantu languages, they are quite similar. Therefore, the absolute duration of voicing is the same as in tenuis stops. The Khoisan languages differ in the number of such modifications from a low of 20 in Nama to a high of 83 in Kxoe. Get her free guide 9 reasons youre not fluentYET & how to fix it! The sound system of Xhosa contains three types of click sounds borrowed from the neighbouring Khoisan languages. New Haven: Compass Publishing Company. Languages such as Zulu and Xhosa make use of three of the five kinds of clicks. Ejective consonants There are several places of articulation at which click consonants occur, as shown in the table below. Forming part of Durban's vibrant Golden Mile, the Bay of Plenty lies at the heart of the beachfront, with high-rise hotels and apartment buildings making the most of the stunning sea view. An estimated 15% of Xhosa vocabulary is of Khoisan origin. They are marked with a raised //. Xhosa language, Xhosa formerly spelled Xosa, a Bantu language spoken by seven million people in South Africa, especially in Eastern province. This ritual vocabulary of the Lardil of Australia contains some words with clicks together with other peculiar sounds, but the use of clicks is limited, and they have a symbolic value in addition to their linguistic function. [citation needed], Khoisan was proposed as one of the four families of African languages in Joseph Greenberg's classification (19491954, revised in 1963). Learn more about the Nilo-Saharan language family on Ethnologue. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions., Online Xhosa lessons [6] Dimmendaal (2008) summarized the general view with, "it has to be concluded that Greenberg's intuitions on the genetic unity of Khoisan could not be confirmed by subsequent research. The original ancestor is Tshawe, but it is direct family members that Xhosa people call upon for guidance, support and to turn the tide of favour. The Xhosa, formerly called Kaffir or Kafir (Arabic for infidel), are a cluster of related peoples who have inhabited Eastern Cape Province and Transkei, South Africa, since before the 16th century. [12] It is the second most common Bantu home language in South Africa as a whole. 2014 - 2023. The spirits of those who have passed on are honoured in rituals and ceremonies. Xhosa is closely related to Zulu, The normal word order in Xhosa is Verb-Object (the subject is part of the verb compound). Xhosa has several dialects, including Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). Xhosa is used in primary schools up to the second grade and is studied as a subject in both primary and secondary schools up to the tenth grade. Kiga, Omissions? [20] The Bantu ancestor of Xhosa did not have clicks, which attests to a strong historical contact with a Khoisan language that did. Bonke abantu bazalwa bekhululekile belingana ngesidima Xhosa has three basic clicks . , "A Lexicostatistical Approach towards Reconstructing Proto-Khoisan", "From modern Khoisan languages to Proto-Khoisan: The Value of Intermediate Reconstructions. 1. The spirits of those who have passed on are honoured in rituals and ceremonies. The Xhosa language (Isixhosa), of which there are variations, is part of the Nguni language group. #VisitSouthAfrica, RT @FIAFormulaE: The Rainbow Nation The phonology of Xhosa is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants. This article was most recently revised and updated by, magazines and newspapers in Xhosa, as well as TV and radio programmes, Their use in education has been governed by legislation, beginning with the Bantu Education Act, 1953.[12]. The sociolinguistic story of the South African Khoesan languages is one of language death (Dorian 1989), and finds its place in the discussion of language death in Africa (Dimendaal 1989, Brenzinger 1992, Brenzinger et al. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights), Some corrections to this page by Michael Peter Fstumum, Information about Xhosa | "Die Khoe-sprachigen Buschmnner der Kalahari." Ngqika is considered to be the standard variety. I'm the 'guide' behind The Intrepid Guide, an Award-Winning site for travellers and language learners with thousands of readers, 1,000+ students, and a popular newsletter. Implosive consonants This process can skip rightwards to non-local syllables (i.e. Consequently, the languages with the greatest numbers of consonants in the world are Khoisan. Nyamwezi, Besides pulmonic egressive sounds, which are found in all spoken languages, it has a series of ejective stops and one implosive stop. Let us know where you'll be watching this weekend. The number of Khoisan speakers has declined drastically in the last three centuries due to European colonisation, demographic pressures and changing lifestyles. [15], John Bennie was a Scottish Presbyterian missionary and early Xhosa linguist. Below is a table of Xhosa consonants. The Xhosa noun consists of two essential parts, the prefix and the stem. There is also the South Cushitic language Dahalo in Kenya, which has dental clicks in a few score words, and an extinct and presumably artificial Australian ritual language called Damin, which had only nasal clicks. The Bantu languages adopted the use of clicks from neighboring, displaced, or absorbed Khoisan populations (or from other Bantu languages), often through intermarriage, while the Dahalo are thought to have retained clicks from an earlier language when they shifted to speaking a Cushitic language; if so, the pre-Dahalo language may have been something like Hadza or Sandawe. Their language is often called the click language because of its three dominant clicks, which entered the isiXhosa language when the Nguni arrivals mixed with the Khoisan. Central Khoisan, the largest group, includes Nama (Khoekhoe, Khoekhoegowab) and Haiom (Saan) spoken in Namibia, and smaller languages spoken in the Kalahari desert of Botswana. Nguni languages are, in turn, classified under the much larger abstraction of Bantu languages. They are better described as slack voiced than as breathy voiced. See Khoe languages for speculations on the linguistic history of the region. Mushungulu, According to the 2011 census there Kuria, This produces an audible noise. The following three are languages from the Khoe family, the Kxa family, and the Tuu family, respectively. Only a few consonants, such as /b/, /m/, /n/, /r/, and /l/ can appear between vowels, and even fewer can appear at the end of words. Xhosa is considered to be a Category II language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English. Nkore, On commence, ce tour d'horizon des onze langues officielles en Afrique du Sud par le xhosa. As of 2003[update] approximately 5.3million Xhosa-speakers, the majority, live in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape (approximately 2million), Gauteng (671,045), the Free State (246,192), KwaZulu-Natal (219,826), North West (214,461), Mpumalanga (46,553), the Northern Cape (51,228), and Limpopo (14,225). Zulu: 22.7%, Xhosa: 16%, Afrikaans . Starostin (2013) gives the following classification of the Khoisan "macrofamily," which he considers to be a single coherent language family. Impariamo insieme! Zinza, Bemba, I will never give away, trade or sell your email address. Eton, The Khoisan. The 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, however, have witnessed the death of many of the recorded languages and dialects, and their distribution is now largely confined to Botswana and Namibia. They Isewell [CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons. But, as with any language, Xhosa had a rich history of oral traditions from which the society taught, informed, and entertained one another. Swati, Clicks are stops produced with two points of contact in the mouth: one forward and one in the back. It is closely related to Zulu, Swati, and Ndebele. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. When consonants are prenasalised, their pronunciation and spelling may change. Konjo, The sustainability village focused on boo, Experience the most exciting electric street racing here in Cape Town as the world's best street racers battle., Undoubtedly the best spots to experience unbridled views of the Mother City. Like other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa has borrowed words from the Khoisan languages, as well as from English and Afrikaans. Agreements usually reflect part of the original class with which the word agrees. The only widespread Khoisan language is Khoekhoe (also known as Khoekhoegowab, Nm or Damara) of Namibia, Botswana and South Africa, with a quarter of a million speakers; Sandawe in Tanzania is second in number with some 4080,000, some monolingual; and the Kung language of the northern Kalahari spoken by some 16,000 or so people. #CapeTownEPrix Read More; development. XXhosa tradition is an extremely powerful social force binding together these people of Eastern Cape province, most evident in Xhosa beliefs revering their ancestors. Do you think English would be more interesting with similar click sounds? Swahili, aquatic human-like beings who accept into their family those who drown. Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika is part of the national anthem of South Africa, national anthem of Tanzania and Zambia, and the former anthem of Zimbabwe and Namibia. Both Xhosa and Zulu are an official languages in South Africa and Lesotho. Xhosa: [noun] a member of a Bantu-speaking people of Eastern Cape province. The Khoisan (Khoesan) language family is the smallest of the language families of Africa. The verb is modified by affixes to mark subject, object, tense, aspect and mood. The KhoisanThe Khoisan are a group of indigenous people who inhabit Southern Africa, mainly in the regions of Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Angola, Zambia. ), Gldemann, Tom and Edward D. Elderkin (forthcoming) '. If you like this site and find it useful, you can support it by making a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or by contributing in other ways. Thus their language is variously said to be extinct or to have 18,000 speakers, to be Ju or to be Khoe. 9 reasons youre not fluentYET & how to fix it! Southern Sotho, Its great for beginners getting started in a language and invaluable for intermediates looking to fill in gaps in their vocabulary and pronunciation. in parts of Lesotho and Zimbabwe. Xhosa is a Bantu language that is closely related to Ndebele and Swazi and is characterized by the unique click sounds for some letters. Khoisan languages, a unique group of African languages spoken mainly in southern Africa, with two outlying languages found in eastern Africa. No idea what a clicking language is? The Tuu family consists of two language clusters, which are related to each other at about the distance of Khoekhoe and Tshukhwe within Khoe. so much, I reached out to them and weve teamed up to offer, across all of uTalks 140 languages! This offer isnt available anywhere else! [12] However, this classification is not widely accepted. Terms of Use A preliminary classification of the !X and u'hasi dialects. In fact, these differences are so pronounced as to suggest that in a linguistic discussion the term Khoisan should be used only in a loose typological sense to refer to a group of languages that share some features of sound structure (mainly involving clicks) and not as the name of a language family in the strict sensesuch as Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, or Bantuin which some shared features are found at all levels of structure and these features are assumed to have been inherited from a common ancestral language. They are now held to comprise three distinct language families and two language isolates. Two languages of east Africa, those of the Sandawe and Hadza, originally were also classified as Khoisan, although their speakers are ethnically neither Khoikhoi nor San. Fricatives become affricates. Emeritus Professor of African Studies; former Director, Institute for African Studies, University of Cologne. Gusii, If a woman has children, whom she has raised to be adults, then it is usual to find her seated among her peers smoking a long-handled pipe. It has therefore been recognized that the Xhosa language formed after historical interaction with the Khoisan. [1][2] Khoisan is defined as those languages that have click consonants and do not belong to other African language families. Digo, In 1996[update], the literacy rate for first-language Xhosa speakers was estimated at 50%.[15]. "History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation", "The Kxa Family: A New Khoisan Genealogy", . Ikizu, Masaaba, "Phonetic Correspondences among Khoisan Affricates." Unfortunately, many of these languages have left behind no written records, so their loss is permanent. Xhosa (isiXhosa) is the southernmost member of the Bantoid group of the Niger-Congo language family in Africa. No part of this site shall be reproduced, copied, or otherwise distributed without the express, written consent of Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Kamba, We use the verb "have" to denote possession, ownership, and other related meanings. The original stanza was: Additional stanzas were written later by Sontonga and other writers, with the original verse translated into Sotho and Afrikaans, as well as English. Ewondo, Ejective consonants are pronounced with simultaneous closure of the glottis, raising air pressure in the mouth, so when the sound is released, there is a noticeable burst of air accompanying the release. They are thought to have migrated to this region along the east coast of Africa and through central Africa. These are the only languages known to have clicks in normal vocabulary. 'The adaptation of non-click consonants in Xhosa'. The word lives on, however, in the names of several African animal and plant species, such as the Hottentot Fig or Carpobrotus. films, plays and songs. The Khoisan, or Click, linguistic family is made up of three branches: the Khoisan languages of the San (Bushmen) and Khoikhoi, spoken in various parts of sub-Saharan Africa; Sandawe, a language found in E Africa; and Hatsa (Hadzane or Hadzapi), also spoken in E Africa. The name Khoisan derives from the name of the Khoikhoi (people people or real people) group of South Africa and the San (Bushmen) group of Namibia. Nguni - a group of southern Bantu languages . 1997. You can unsubscribe at any time. In, Gldemann, Tom and Rainer Vossen. Most of the languages in South Africa that involve tongue-clicking originate from the indigenous Khoisan people, who included plenty of different clicks in their speech and language. Though these are still under debate, one frequently accepted dialect grouping is as follows: Xhosa (original), Bhaca, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ngqika, Mpondo, Mfengu and Bomvana. Several radio stations and one TV station broadcast in Xhosa. Southern Khoisan has a fifth click, the bilabial . The onset cluster /kl/ from phonologized loanwords such as, The unwritten glottal stop is present in words like, In informal writing, this murmured consonant can sometimes be seen spelled as, sebenz + -is + -el +wa -> setyenziselwa [setenziselwa] (used for), This page was last edited on 25 February 2023, at 23:55. Thus, the word for people is abantu in all these languages. Sources The Xhosa number approximately 7.1-million, the majority of whom live in Eastern Cape, and ancient traditions remain strong in this proud people. is awesome for learning key words and phrases in Xhosa, especially if you want to use it for travel purposes. Grammatically, the southern Khoisan languages are generally analytic, having several inflectional morphemes, but not as many as the click languages of Tanzania. 1971. The prenasalized versions have a very short voicing at the onset which then releases in an ejective, like the prenasalized affricates, while the phonemically nasal clicks have a very long voicing through the consonant. The original and unique use of clicks in the Khoisan languages has invited speculation that these unusual sounds might reflect an earlier stage in the evolution of language when sounds were natural vocal adaptations to the environment. The palatalization process only applies once, as evidenced by ukuphuphumisa+wa -> ukuphuphunyiswa "to be made to overflow", instead of the illicit alternative, *ukuphutshunyiswa. Sukuma, The local Khoisan children speak mainly Afrikaans but Katrina Esau hopes this will change over time . Makonde, In Xhosa culture, women are easily recognised by their heavy dress, matching turban and coloured dots . The word order is subjectverbobject, like in English. Total number of users in all countries is 19.2 million (Ethnologue). 1. The majority of languages which contain clicks originate with the Khoisan languages. Jita, It is one of the eleven official languages of the Republic of South Africa. Bonke abantu banesiphiwo sesazela nesizathu Nande, However, there is no scientific proof to support this hypothesis since all languages use sound symbolism to a lesser or greater extent. Anthony Traill at first accepted Khoisan (Traill 1986), but by 1998 concluded that it could not be demonstrated with current data and methods, rejecting it as based on a single typological criterion: the presence of clicks.

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