robert oppenheimer grandchildren

While on vacation, as recalled by his friend Francis Fergusson, Oppenheimer once confessed that he had left an apple doused with noxious chemicals on Blackett's desk. Edwin Albrecht Uehling, the chairman of the physics department and a colleague of Oppenheimer's from Berkeley, appealed to the university senate, and Schmitz's decision was overturned by a vote of 56 to 40. New York, NY, United States. [113], The joint work of the scientists at Los Alamos resulted in the world's first nuclear explosion, near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945. News of PM INDIA. Years later it was realized that the sun was largely composed of hydrogen and that his calculations were indeed correct. His art collection included works by Czanne, Derain, Despiau, de Vlaminck, Picasso, Rembrandt, Renoir, Van Gogh and Vuillard. 1904, d. 1967). [151][152], A majority of the AEC subsequently endorsed the GAC recommendation, and Oppenheimer thought that the fight against the Super would triumph, but proponents of the weapon lobbied the White House vigorously. [246] She left the property to "the people of St. John for a public park and recreation area". As he witnessed the first detonation of a nuclear weapon on July 16, 1945, a piece of Hindu scripture ran through the mind of Robert Oppenheimer: "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds . [218] According to biographer Ray Monk: "He was, in a very practical and real sense, a supporter of the Communist Party. Heinar Kipphardt's play In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer, after appearing on West German television, had its theatrical release in Berlin and Munich in October 1964. Like many scientists of his generation, he felt that security from atomic bombs would come only from a transnational organization such as the newly formed United Nations, which could institute a program to stifle a nuclear arms race. In January 1977 (three months after the end of her second marriage), she committed suicide aged 32; her ex-husband found her hanging from a beam in her family beach house. (quoting the Bhagavad-Gita after witnessing the first Nuclear explosion.) He then suggested and championed a site that he knew well: a flat mesa near Santa Fe, New Mexico, which was the site of a private boys' school, the Los Alamos Ranch School. [61][62], During the 1920s, Oppenheimer remained uninformed on worldly matters. [73] Many of Oppenheimer's closest associates were active in the Communist Party in the 1930s or 1940s, including his brother Frank, Frank's wife Jackie,[74] Kitty,[75] Tatlock, his landlady Mary Ellen Washburn,[76] and several of his graduate students at Berkeley. [70], Their first child, Peter, was born in May 1941,[71] and their second, Katherine ("Toni"), was born in Los Alamos, New Mexico, on December 7, 1944. Wheeler. Oppenheimer's ranch in New Mexico was then inherited by their son Peter, and the beach property was inherited by their daughter Katherine "Toni" Oppenheimer Silber. His father had been a member of the Society for many years, serving on its board of trustees from 1907 to 1915. [88] In August 1943, he volunteered to Manhattan Project security agents that George Eltenton, whom he did not know, had solicited three men at Los Alamos for nuclear secrets on behalf of the Soviet Union. Teller testified that he considered Oppenheimer loyal to the US government, but that: In a great number of cases, I have seen Dr. Oppenheimer actI understand that Dr. Oppenheimer actedin a way which was for me was exceedingly hard to understand. Because his scientific attentions often changed rapidly, he never worked long enough on any one topic and carried it to fruition to merit the Nobel Prize,[274] although his investigations contributing to the theory of black holes may have warranted the prize had he lived long enough to see them brought into fruition by later astrophysicists. [161] Truman had declined to reappoint them, as he wanted new voices on the committee who were more in support of H-bomb development. miami marlins team doctor; single palmar crease both hands; animals that burrow in the ground illinois; fearless in other languages; nevada eviction moratorium end date; Finally, in 1939, Oppenheimer and another of his students, Hartland Snyder, produced the paper "On Continued Gravitational Contraction",[51] which predicted the existence of what are today known as black holes. Frank Friedman Oppenheimer (August 14, 1912) was an American particle physicist, University of Colorado professor of physics, and founder of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. If you have additional information or corrections regarding this mathematician, please use the update form.To submit students of this mathematician, please use the new data form, noting this mathematician's MGP ID of 14001 for the advisor ID. By 1890 they had over 550 children, grandchildren, and a few great grandchildren. Oppenheimer's objections resulted in an exchange of correspondence with Kipphardt, in which the playwright offered to make corrections but defended the play. [99], Los Alamos was initially supposed to be a military laboratory, and Oppenheimer and other researchers were to be commissioned into the Army. Though she refused and reported the incident to her husband,[30] the invitation, and her apparent nonchalance about it, disquieted Pauling and he ended his relationship with Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer rejected the idea of nuclear gunboat diplomacy. Conant, Groves, and Oppenheimer devised a compromise whereby the laboratory was operated by the University of California under contract to the War Department. Oppenheimer believed that he had blood on . His wife took the ashes to St. John and dropped the urn into the sea, within sight of the beach house. The program in 1951 was technically so sweet that you could not argue about that. Murray Gell-Mann, a later Nobelist who, as a visiting scientist, worked with him at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1951, offered this opinion: He didn't have Sitzfleisch, "sitting flesh," when you sit on a chair. [59] The physicist and historian Abraham Pais once asked Oppenheimer what he considered his most important scientific contributions; Oppenheimer cited his work on electrons and positrons, not his work on gravitational contraction. Death: February 18, 1967 (62) Princeton, NJ, United States (Throat Cancer) Place of Burial: Cremated, (ashes scattered over the Virgin Islands) Immediate Family: Son of Julius Seligmann Oppenheimer and Ella Oppenheimer. He scarcely breathed. The optimist thinks this is the best of all possible worlds. [231] In 1955, Oppenheimer published The Open Mind, a collection of eight lectures that he had given since 1946 on the subject of nuclear weapons and popular culture. His brother Frank and the rest of his family were also there, as was the historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., the novelist John O'Hara, and George Balanchine, the director of the New York City Ballet. Bethe, Kennan and Smyth gave brief eulogies. [236][237] At the urging of many of Oppenheimer's political friends who had ascended to power, President John F. Kennedy awarded Oppenheimer the Enrico Fermi Award in 1963 as a gesture of political rehabilitation. While Fergusson's account is the only detailed version of this event, Oppenheimer's parents were alerted by the university authorities who considered placing him on probation, a fate prevented by his parents successfully lobbying the authorities. Mabel was born on July 14 1890, in Illinois, USA. Kitty had been married before. In 1935, Oppenheimer and Phillips worked out a theorynow known as the OppenheimerPhillips processto explain the results; this theory is still in use today. [31], In the autumn of 1928, Oppenheimer visited Paul Ehrenfest's institute at the University of Leiden, the Netherlands, where he impressed by giving lectures in Dutch, despite having little experience with the language. [97], Oppenheimer and Groves decided that for security and cohesion they needed a centralized, secret research laboratory in a remote location. In 1933, he learned Sanskrit and met the Indologist Arthur W. Ryder at Berkeley. He saw physics clearly, looking toward what had already been done, but at the border he tended to feel there was much more of the mysterious and novel than there actually was [he turned] away from the hard, crude methods of theoretical physics into a mystical realm of broad intuition. [256][257][258] National security advisor and academic McGeorge Bundy, who had worked with Oppenheimer on the State Department Panel of Consultants, has written: "Quite aside from Oppenheimer's extraordinary rise and fall in prestige and power, his character has fully tragic dimensions in its combination of charm and arrogance, intelligence and blindness, awareness and insensitivity, and perhaps above all daring and fatalism. Throughout the development of the atomic bomb, Oppenheimer was under investigation by both the FBI and the Manhattan Project's internal security arm for left-wing associations he was known to have had in the past. [143] Oppenheimer had been aware of the possibility of a thermonuclear weapon since the days of the Manhattan Project and had allocated a limited amount of theoretical research work toward the possibility at the time, but nothing more than that, given the pressing need to develop a fission weapon. There she married Richard Harrison, a physician and medical researcher, in 1938. To help him recover from the illness, his father enlisted the help of his English teacher Herbert Smith, who took him to New Mexico, where Oppenheimer fell in love with horseback riding and the southwestern United States. [204][205], One of the key elements in this hearing was Oppenheimer's earliest testimony about George Eltenton's approach to various Los Alamos scientists, a story that Oppenheimer confessed he had fabricated to protect his friend Haakon Chevalier. [242], Oppenheimer was a chain smoker who was diagnosed with throat cancer in late 1965. He was an iconic figure to his fellow scientists, as much a symbol of what they were working toward as a scientific director. [56], In spite of this, observers such as Nobel Prize-winning physicist Luis Alvarez have suggested that if he had lived long enough to see his predictions substantiated by experiment, Oppenheimer might have won a Nobel Prize for his work on gravitational collapse, concerning neutron stars and black holes. The frontiers of science are separated now by long years of study, by specialized vocabularies, arts, techniques, and knowledge from the common heritage even of a most civilized society; and anyone working at the frontier of such science is in that sense a very long way from home, a long way too from the practical arts that were its matrix and origin, as indeed they were of what we today call art. [201] It then continued with an examination of Oppenheimer's opposition to the H-bomb and stances in subsequent projects and study groups. His parents were suffocatingly attentive. He toured Europe and Japan, giving talks about the history of science, the role of science in society, and the nature of the universe. [57][58] In retrospect, some physicists and historians consider this his most important contribution, though it was not taken up by other scientists in his lifetime. [17], In 1924, Oppenheimer was informed that he had been accepted into Christ's College, Cambridge. Julian Schwinger, Richard Feynman and Shin'ichiro Tomonaga tackled the problem of regularization, and developed techniques that became known as renormalization. "[121] At an assembly at Los Alamos on August 6 (the evening of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima), Oppenheimer took to the stage and clasped his hands together "like a prize-winning boxer" while the crowd cheered. [162] In addition, various opponents of Oppenheimer had communicated to Truman their desire that Oppenheimer leave the committee. [166] Oppenheimer was also a member of the Science Advisory Committee of the Office of Defense Mobilization. In June 1939 Kitty and Harrison moved to Pasadena, California, where he became chief of radiology at a local hospital and she enrolled as a graduate student at the University of California, Los Angeles. [191] He testified that some of his students, including David Bohm, Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz, Philip Morrison, Bernard Peters, and Joseph Weinberg had been communists at the time they had worked with him at Berkeley. Zijn moeder was Ella Friedman, een schilderes. [144] Immediately following the end of the war, Oppenheimer argued against continuing work on the Super at that time, due to both lack of need and the enormous human casualties that would result from its use. In return he was asked to curtail his teaching at Caltech, so a compromise was reached whereby Berkeley released him for six weeks each year, enough to teach one term at Caltech. [40] In 1936, Berkeley promoted him to full professor at a salary of $3,300 a year (equivalent to $64,000 in 2021). [190], On June 7, 1949, Oppenheimer testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee that he had associations with the Communist Party USA in the 1930s. [107] In August 1944, Oppenheimer implemented a sweeping reorganization of the Los Alamos laboratory to focus on implosion. [124] In October 1945, Oppenheimer was granted an interview with President Harry S. Truman. "[148] They also had practical qualms, as there was no workable design for a hydrogen bomb at the time. [215] Wernher von Braun summed up his opinion about the matter with a quip to a Congressional committee: "In England, Oppenheimer would have been knighted. [270] A centennial conference and exhibit were held in 2004 at Berkeley,[271] with the proceedings of the conference published in 2005 as Reappraising Oppenheimer: Centennial Studies and Reflections. Oppenheimer at first had difficulty with the organizational division of large groups, but rapidly learned the art of large-scale administration after he took up permanent residence on the mesa. The other group felt that developing the H-bomb would not in fact improve the Western security position and that using the weapon against large civilian populations would be an act of genocide, and advocated instead a more flexible response to the Soviets involving tactical nuclear weapons, strengthened conventional forces, and arms control agreements. At the laboratory, Oppenheimer assembled a group of the top physicists of the time, which he called the "luminaries". In the summer of 1940, she stayed with Oppenheimer at his ranch in New Mexico. In 1965, when he was persuaded to quote again for a television broadcast, he said: We knew the world would not be the same. To help distract him from his depression, Fergusson told Oppenheimer that he (Fergusson) was to marry his girlfriend, Frances Keeley. [181] This notion found a receptive audience in the new Eisenhower administration and led to creation of Operation Candor. Teller, the winner of the previous year's award, had also recommended Oppenheimer receive it, in the hope that it would heal the rift between them. [111], In May 1945 an Interim Committee was created to advise and report on wartime and postwar policies regarding the use of nuclear energy. Zijn vader was Julius S. Oppenheimer, een welgestelde Joodse importeur van textiel die in 1888 vanuit Duitsland gemigreerd was naar de Verenigde Staten. [142], The first atomic bomb test by the Soviet Union in August 1949 came earlier than Americans expected, and over the next several months there was an intense debate within the U.S. government, military, and scientific communities over whether to proceed with the development of the far more powerful, nuclear fusion-based hydrogen bomb, then known as "the Super". [14] He completed the third and fourth grades in one year and skipped half of the eighth grade. [112] This included opinions on such sensitive issues as whether the Soviet Union should be advised of the weapon in advance of its use against Japan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Although Fergusson easily fended off the attack, the episode convinced him of Oppenheimer's deep psychological troubles. [211] Many top scientists, as well as government and military figures, testified on Oppenheimer's behalf. [220] Her statement said, "In 1954, the Atomic Energy Commission revoked Dr. Oppenheimers security clearance through a flawed process that violated the Commissions own regulations. New York Times theater critic Clive Barnes called it an "angry play and a partisan play" that sided with Oppenheimer but portrayed the scientist as a "tragic fool and genius". [259] It premiered in New York in June 1968, with Joseph Wiseman in the Oppenheimer role. [187], The FBI under J. Edgar Hoover had been following Oppenheimer since before the war, when he showed communist sympathies as a professor at Berkeley and had been close to members of the Communist Party, including his wife and brother. The mix of European physicists and his own studentsa group including Robert Serber, Emil Konopinski, Felix Bloch, Hans Bethe and Edward Tellerkept themselves busy by calculating what needed to be done, and in what order, to make the bomb. In 1957 the philosophy and psychology departments at Harvard invited Oppenheimer to deliver the William James Lectures. [79] He was a subscriber to the People's World,[80] a Communist Party organ, and he testified in 1954, "I was associated with the communist movement. Jack was born on September 2 1890, in Hemsbach, Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany. The good deeds a man has done before defend him. He donated to many progressive causes that were branded as left-wing during the McCarthy era. [189] The FBI furnished Oppenheimer's political enemies with evidence that implicated communist ties. [77], When he joined the Manhattan Project in 1942, Oppenheimer wrote on his personal security questionnaire that he had been "a member of just about every Communist Front organization on the West Coast". "[258], The question of the scientists' responsibility toward humanity inspired Bertolt Brecht's drama Galileo (1955), left its imprint on Friedrich Drrenmatt's Die Physiker, and is the basis of the opera Doctor Atomic by John Adams (2005), which was commissioned to portray Oppenheimer as a modern-day Faust. He was fond of using elegant, if extremely complex, mathematical techniques to demonstrate physical principles, though he was sometimes criticized for making mathematical mistakes, presumably out of haste. He was noted for his mastery of all scientific aspects of the project and for his efforts to control the inevitable cultural conflicts between scientists and the military. Her first marriage lasted only a few months. Born left it out on his desk where Oppenheimer could read it, and it was effective without a word being said. He was hired by a textile company and within a decade was an executive there, eventually becoming wealthy. On July 20, 1943, he wrote to the Manhattan Engineer District: In accordance with my verbal directions of July 15, it is desired that clearance be issued to Julius Robert Oppenheimer without delay irrespective of the information which you have concerning Mr Oppenheimer. [251][252], Rather than consistently oppose the "Red-baiting" of the late 1940s and early 1950s, Oppenheimer testified against some of his former colleagues and students, both before and during his hearing. [233], Deprived of political power, Oppenheimer continued to lecture, write and work on physics. [212] Rabi commented that Oppenheimer was merely a government consultant at the time anyway and that if the government "didn't want to consult the guy, then don't consult him". Had Oppenheimer's clearance not been stripped, he might have been remembered as someone who had "named names" to save his own reputation. Shortly thereafter, the FBI added Oppenheimer to its Custodial Detention Index, for arrest in case of national emergency. Most people were silent. [150] In that connection, Oppenheimer and the others were concerned about the opportunity costs that would be incurred if nuclear reactors were diverted from materials needed for atom bomb production to the materials such as tritium needed for a thermonuclear weapon. [16], Oppenheimer majored in chemistry, but Harvard required science students to also study history, literature, and philosophy or mathematics. Throughout his life, Oppenheimer was plagued by periods of depression,[22][23] and he once told his brother, "I need physics more than friends". robert oppenheimer grandchildrenadopt me trading server link 2022. Professor J. Robert Oppenheimer, the inventor of the Atomic Bomb was also a descendant of this family Samuel the 17th Great Grandson of Rashi related through his Grand Mother Frummet BALLIN to Yocheved Bas SHLOMO Rashi's Daughter Marc Heymann is the 9th Great Grandson of Samuel Oppenheimer. His close confidant and colleague, Nobel Prize winner Isidor Rabi, later gave his own interpretation: Oppenheimer was overeducated in those fields, which lie outside the scientific tradition, such as his interest in religion, in the Hindu religion in particular, which resulted in a feeling of mystery of the universe that surrounded him like a fog. [103][104] In a letter dated May 25, 1943, Oppenheimer responded to a proposal by Fermi to use radioactive materials to poison German food supplies. For the last few seconds, he stared directly ahead and then when the announcer shouted "Now!" [277][278], The meaning of the 'J' in J. Robert Oppenheimer has been a source of confusion. examples of communities coming together; robert oppenheimer grandchildren; houses for rent in ranburne, al; robert oppenheimer grandchildren. He directed and encouraged the research of many well-known scientists, including Freeman Dyson, and the duo of Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee, who won a Nobel Prize for their discovery of parity non-conservation. [67], In 1936, Oppenheimer became involved with Jean Tatlock, the daughter of a Berkeley literature professor and a student at Stanford University School of Medicine. Two days before the Trinity test, Oppenheimer expressed his hopes and fears in a quotation from Bharthari's atakatraya: In battle, in the forest, at the precipice in the mountains, [213], During his hearing, Oppenheimer testified willingly on the left-wing activities of many of his scientific colleagues. His associates fell into two camps: one saw him as an aloof and impressive genius and aesthete, the other as a pretentious and insecure poseur. [197] Oppenheimer chose not to resign and requested a hearing instead. [19] He developed an antagonistic relationship with his tutor, Patrick Blackett, who was only a few years his senior. He wrote to Ernest Rutherford requesting permission to work at the Cavendish Laboratory. robert oppenheimer grandchildren. This meant moving back east and leaving Ruth Tolman, the wife of his friend Richard Tolman, with whom he had begun an affair after leaving Los Alamos. [183] Oppenheimer subsequently presented his view on the lack of utility of ever-larger nuclear arsenals to the American public in a June 1953 article in Foreign Affairs,[184] and it received attention in major American newspapers. [27] After the oral exam, James Franck, the professor administering, reportedly said, "I'm glad that's over. [41], Oppenheimer did important research in theoretical astronomy (especially as related to general relativity and nuclear theory), nuclear physics, spectroscopy, and quantum field theory, including its extension into quantum electrodynamics. [70] During his marriage, Oppenheimer rekindled his affair with Tatlock. [36] He recovered from tuberculosis and returned to Berkeley, where he prospered as an advisor and collaborator to a generation of physicists who admired him for his intellectual virtuosity and broad interests. June 22, 2022 . robert oppenheimer grandchildren. Freeman Dyson was able to prove that their procedures gave similar results. He didn't have patience for that; his own work consisted of little aperus, but quite brilliant ones. Rutherford was unimpressed, but Oppenheimer went to Cambridge in the hope of landing another offer. Husband of Katherine Oppenheimer. [20], Oppenheimer was a tall, thin chain smoker,[21] who often neglected to eat during periods of intense thought and concentration. In 1934, he earmarked three percent of his annual salaryabout $100 (equivalent to $2,026 in 2021)for two years to support German physicists fleeing Nazi Germany. [47] Oppenheimer, drawing on the body of experimental evidence, rejected the idea that the predicted positively charged electrons were protons. [122] But he and many of the project staff were very upset about the bombing of Nagasaki, as they did not feel the second bomb was necessary from a military point of view. Toni was refused security clearance for her chosen vocation as a United Nations translator after the FBI brought up the old charges against her father. [42], Initially, his major interest was the theory of the continuous spectrum and his first published paper, in 1926, concerned the quantum theory of molecular band spectra. [196] On December 21, 1953, Strauss told Oppenheimer that his security clearance had been suspended, pending resolution of a series of charges outlined in a letter, and discussed his resigning by way of requesting termination of his consulting contract with the AEC. [33] From Leiden he continued on to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich to work with Wolfgang Pauli on quantum mechanics and the continuous spectrum. An influential group of Harvard alumni led by Edwin Ginn that included Archibald Roosevelt protested against the decision. [219], On December 16, 2022, United States Secretary of Energy Jennifer Granholm vacated the 1954 revocation of Oppenheimer's security clearance. He had done it. "[216], In a seminar at The Wilson Center in 2009, based on an extensive analysis of the Vassiliev notebooks taken from the KGB archives, John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev confirmed that Oppenheimer never was involved in espionage for the Soviet Union. [140], After the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) came into being in 1947 as a civilian agency in control of nuclear research and weapons issues, Oppenheimer was appointed as the chairman of its General Advisory Committee (GAC). In fact, Oppenheimer had never told Chevalier that he had finally named him, and the testimony had cost Chevalier his job. Oppenheimer asked Fermi whether he could produce enough strontium without letting too many in on the secret. I said that perhaps he [Kipphardt] had forgotten Guernica, Coventry, Hamburg, Dresden, Dachau, Warsaw, and Tokyo; but I had not, and that if he found it so difficult to understand, he should write a play about something else. During the Second Red Scare, those stances, together with past associations Oppenheimer had with people and organizations affiliated with the Communist Party, led to the revocation of his security clearance in a much-written-about hearing in 1954. In sleep, in confusion, in the depths of shame, On November 16, 1942, Oppenheimer, Groves and others toured a prospective site. He always knew what were the important problems, as shown by his choice of subjects. Bernard Baruch was appointed to translate this report into a proposal to the United Nations, resulting in the Baruch Plan of 1946. Initial research on the properties of plutonium was done using cyclotron-generated plutonium-239, which was extremely pure but could be created only in tiny amounts. J. Robert Oppenheimer[note 1] (/pnhamr/; April 22, 1904 February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist. This led to Cecil Frank Powell's breakthrough and subsequent Nobel Prize for the discovery of the pion. Bridgman also wanted him at Harvard, so a compromise was reached whereby he split his fellowship for the 192728 academic year between Harvard in 1927 and Caltech in 1928. J. Robert has 2 children; Peter Oppenheimer and Katherine Oppenheimer. [166] Undertaken at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, which had recently been founded to study issues of air defense, this in turn led to the Lincoln Summer Study Group, where Oppenheimer became a key figure. It recorded that he attended a meeting in December 1940 at Chevalier's home that was also attended by the Communist Party's California state secretary, William Schneiderman, and its treasurer, Isaac Folkoff. His work predicted many later finds, which include the neutron, meson and neutron star. [60] Oppenheimer was nominated for the Nobel Prize for physics three times, in 1946, 1951 and 1967, but never won. "[240], The rehabilitation implied by the award was partly symbolic, as Oppenheimer still lacked a security clearance and could have no effect on official policy, but the award came with a $50,000 tax-free stipend, and its award outraged many prominent Republicans in Congress. He developed a method to carry out calculations of its transition probabilities. In their biography of J. Robert Oppenheimer, American Prometheus, Kai Bird and Martin Sherwin trace the evolution of three intersecting strands of thought that have shaped the modern world: the evolution of communism from its 1930's, quasi-liberal form into a rigid, authoritarian ideology; the evolution of quantum mechanics; and the evolution of our country's thinking about the strategic . In 1957, he purchased a 2-acre (0.81ha) tract of land on Gibney Beach, where he built a spartan home on the beach.

North Hunterdon High School 2020 2021, Homemade Denture Adhesive, Richard Blum Obituary, What Happened To Cyrus Beene Daughter, Are There Sharks In Greece Rhodes, Articles R