sdhc utility allowance

$11. The appropriate utility allowance depends on the type of building involved. adapted from form HUD-52667 (7/2019) Author: nelrod Diego Board of Supervisors Department Contacts Media Information, Child & Family Strengthening Advisory Board, Economic Development and Government Affairs, Discretionary Permits (Administrative Permits, Major Use, Site Plans, Variances. Utility or Service: per month cost Complete below for the actual unit rented: Space Heating Name of Family: Cooking Other Electric: Air Conditioning Water Heating: Unit Address Water: Sewer Trash Collection: Range/Microwave Number of Bedrooms: Refrigerator Other: Total . SUAs may be used in lieu of the household's actual costs when determining eligibility and benefit amount. Housing projects awarded HOME Investement Partnership program funds on or after 8/23/13 are no longer permitted to use the utility allowances published by Public Housing Authorities, including the utility allowances available on SHA's website. Utility or Service. March 2003. To calculate your possible assistance, you must figure out your total tenant payment (TTP).To find out your TTP, you must calculate your gross annual income, deduct $480.00 for each child, and $400.00 for one or more elderly / disabled family members. . Additional programs and resources are available to help renters in the City of San Diego with a variety of housing-related issues: All Content Copyright SDHC. Electric Heating RegressHDDxBedroom. The Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R) has developed the HUD Utility Schedule Model to provide a consistent basis for calculating utility schedules. find out the Voucher Payment Standard for each zip code. Section 8 HCV Utility Allowances. floor and ceiling values for all utilities types; providing users the ability to generate allowance estimates based on zip code, in addition to PHA; updating the underlying degree-day data with the latest NOAA 30-year weather data (1981-2010); updates to the water usage estimates based on U.S. Geological data; incorporating additional green discounts (i.e., LEED and Significant Green Retrofits); refining the models heating consumption estimates; incorporating a factor adjustment feature. Utility bills exceeded utility allowances by more than $25 for nearly half of HCV households in four Florida cities. Total. SanDiegoCounty.gov Home. Utility or Serv Fuel Source Monthly AllowanceUtility or Service. Tenant-supplied Appliances. $123. 2577-0169 See Public Reporting and Instructions on back. The current HUSM is a web application that uses correlations and regression techniques to calculate allowances for end-uses, as specified on form HUD-52667 (Allowances for Tenant-Furnished Utilities and Other Services). Formerly, the payment standard that the HACSD used to determine the endstream endobj startxref The required elements are: You may be asked to provide a copy of this notice when you submit the monthly voucher that implements the UA decrease. buildings, the applicable utility allowance is the applicable PHA utility allowance, a local utility company estimate, an estimate from the State or local housing credit agency (Agency) that has jurisdiction over the building, the HUD Utility Schedule Model, or an energy consumption model. could not afford to rent in neighborhoods with high rents. g0w`#xW{S8/*H/` {F9S40Z`nahr_l}.d|\u*f510`Gi6p^ 3 \R The PHA's minimum rent is a minimum TTP and becomes a part of the TTP formula as shown in examples 1-3 Is receiving a flat utility rate as part of a low-income rate assistance utility program. Natural Gas Charge $14.29: Actual Family Allowances. Heating: Cooking. Utility. for your total utility allowance. All Rights Reserved. Local: 1-202-708-3178Fax: 1-202-708-9981, PD&R Field Economist Organizational Chart, IAH Student Design and Planning Competition, Data License for Access to Restricted Data, Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) Data, The Components of Inventory Change (CINCH), Guidelines for Preparing a Report for Publication, International and Philanthropic Affairs Division, The Office of University Partnerships (OUP), Peer Review of Highly Influential Scientific Information, www.HUDUser.gov/portal/datasets/husm/uam.html, Summary Report: ENERGY STAR Adjustment for HUD-52667 Spreadsheet Model, Summary Report: Heating and Cooling Trend Adjustment, Final Report on HUD52667 Spreadsheet Update, https://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/data/2009/, Homeowner Assistance Fund Income Limits (HAF), Qualified Census Tracts and Difficult Development Areas, Government Sponsored Enterprise Data (1993-2007), Housing Discrimination Against Racial And Ethnic Minorities (2012), PHA Homelessness Preferences: Web Census Survey Data, Manufactured Home and Subprime Lender List (1993-2005), State of the Cities Data Systems (1970-2009). Fort Pierece Utilities Authority (Inside City Limits) Monthly Dollar Allowances. electric) are not included in rent. 626. hb``hb``yz"*`bV$&(f``g4Zo.)cErx500~a; ` }q sk^i`p)LY^`Pu P12L 7 Contact Info | (1) Standard utility allowance: deduction for the assistance groups that incur heating and or cooling costs. 1124 South IH 35, The tenant's housing cost calculation includes both utility allowance and rent and is restricted based on the income targeting of an individual unit (ie. held at 3989 Ruffin Road, San Diego, CA 92123: function googleTranslateElementInit() { Utility Allowances This tool was last updated in 2016. (b) Agency approval. The application portal for this program will remain available through 2024 for landlords, tenants and the Superior Court to obtain records regarding applications for assistance and receipts for payments issued. }, General GARD Analytics. new google.translate.TranslateElement({ Regulations will provide that the owner of a HUD-regulated building--a building whose rents and utility allowances are reviewed by HUD on an annual basis--must use HUD utility allowances. maximum amount of rental assistance for each family participating in GARD Analytics. etc. 700 5th Ave, Suite 5700, Seattle, WA, 98104 As outlined in the Calculation & Approval of Utility Allowances policy, housing projects with Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC) administered by the Washington State Housing Finance Commission (WSHFC) may be able to use an alternative method for estimating utility allowances. Address: In developing the schedule, the PHA must use normal patterns of consumption for the community as a whole and current utility rates. Actual Family Allowances. Families receiving Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher assistance It can be distributed anytime after SHCC has sent notified the owner of the approved UA amounts. All Rights Reserved. This approach often meant that families with HCVs This is up to the PHA, however, the HUD Utility Schedule Model tool available on HUDUser.gov provides an allowance for both electric resistance and electric heat pump. Utility Allowance Schedule - Energy Efficient Garden and Medical Equipment Allowances. In the two years following the Baseline year, the owner will be able to use the Utility Allowance Factor (UAF) published by HUD. The UAF can be found here. Water . SanDiegoCounty.gov All Rights Reserved. and depends upon the family size, income, and bedroom size. A utility allowance schedule is "up-to-date" if the PHA reviewed utility rate data within the last 12 months and adjusted its utility allowance schedule if there has been a change of 10% or more in a utility rate since the last time the utility allowance schedule was revised. SHCC has created a sample notice that you may use as a template to advise residents of their right to comment. Refrigerator Tenant-supplied. Utility Allowance Schedule . GARD Analytics. 0 %%EOF Come to HACSD for a Tenant Meeting for U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2009 RECS Survey Data, https://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/data/2009/. The IRS separates rent-restricted buildings into the following groups for purposes of this determination: . Language Assistance Plan (LAP) for Limited English-speaking Persons (LEP), HCV Waitlist Opening Information English, HCV Waitlist Opening Information Para Espaol (Spanish), HCV Waitlist Opening Information (Russian), ACH Terms and Conditions for Landlord Direct Deposit, Housing Quality Standards Initial Inspection Flow Chart, Housing Quality Standards Biennial Inspection Flow Chart, Housing Quality Standards Inspection Form, Housing Quality Standards Most Common Repair Items, Utility Allowance Schedules Duplex, Garden, High-Rise, Mobile Home, Single Family, Townhouse and Medical Equipment Allowances, Utility Allowance Schedule Energy Efficient Garden and Medical Equipment Allowances, Affordable Housing Wait List Pre-Applications, Reasonable Accommodation Policy English, Reasonable Accommodation Policy Para Espaol (Spanish), Reasonable Accommodation Policy (Russian), Facilities Use Policy & Procedure and Agreement, Housing Choice Voucher Administrative Plan, Public Housing Admissions and Continued Occupancy Plan, TTY (for hearing impaired): Diego Board of Supervisors Department Contacts Media Information, Child & Family Strengthening Advisory Board, Economic Development and Government Affairs, Discretionary Permits (Administrative Permits, Major Use, Site Plans, Variances. If the property consists of multiple non-identical buildings (the buildings are not substantially similar), then the sampling must be performed for each bedroom size for each building on the site. Privacy Statement. Click Add New. Summit Consulting. Shelter expenses include the costs necessary to maintain a residence. metropolitan area. Spreadsheet (ver13) based on form HUD-52667 (12/97). function googleTranslateElementInit() { the balance and divide it by 12 and then multiply that balance by 30 percent. Please note that there are other situations that trigger a Baseline Analysis. Austin, TX 78704, 2021 Southwest Housing Compliance Corporation, Frequently Asked Questions (Revised February 2022), Utility Allowance Baseline Analysis Owner Certification, certification of your compliance with the tenant comment procedures. hn9_dc, bkbc5@$i*z+7i&Lh2-yKW7TLX]N#TVRe1UyB&0F3 aRU9V1pia`X3(8gsj=; f_$33NPfk2rIUY)1Uyf#W=gcs dN^1gS,$,gdP4q0,XZ`YP: 2rw+di. This reform would improve integrity and modernize benefit calculations by ensuring standard utility allowances better align with what households actually pay for utilities, with data-driven adjustments for each state to reflect real differences in these costs. Riley & Associates. Since actual utility costs are often hard to determine, states can use Standard Utility Allowances (SUAs), which are standard amounts that represent low-income household utility costs in the state or local area. Any delays in submitting the analysis could result in a delay in implementing the new UA. P.O. Southwest Housing Compliance Corporation GARD Analytics. rent and utilities. 276 0 obj <>stream Please note that failure to provide residents with this notice 30 days before the UA effective date will result in the owner having to cover the difference in the UA for the period before the residents were properly notified. Effective March 1, 2020, the following utility allowance options will no longer be accepted: Agency Estimate - Viridiant (EarthCraft Virginia), is a licensed, certified professional approved to continue providing energy estimates using the available options. #9:*wWr=|. The first resident notice is to advise them of their right to comment on the Utility Allowance decrease during a 30-day comment period. Projected Family Allowances To be used to compute specific family allowances. HUD has outlined three exceptions to these requirements. $26. The utility allowance schedules are available for use by HOME Investment Partnerships (HOME), Community Development Block Grant (CDBG), Community Development Block Grant Disaster Recovery (CDBG-D), Rental Housing Tax Credits (RHTC/Section 42), Housing Trust Fund (HTF), and Section 8 HCV programs funded by Indiana Housing and Community Development Authority. You may Copy an allowance from the list, and edit the specifics (such as description, unit size, effective date). $16. Natural Gas. Gross Rent or Payment Standard. Details on these alternative utility allowance methods can be found in Appendix O of the Tax Credit Compliance Procedures Manual. Going Determine which utility costs (cooking, hot water, misc. located within our jurisdiction. The 90 day implementation period begins January 1, 2022 and ends March 31, 2022. HUD Utility Schedule Model. Housing Locality Green Discount Unit Type Date (mm/dd/yyyy) San Diego Housing Commission None Apartment Bldgs. }M{4rO% K4o\yM*V .yxJ |#0@Eh^#fR],& #O k ] FOIA | Riley & Associates. . Name of Family. The San Diego Housing Commission is pleased to be a partner in "San Diego for Every Child: The Coalition to End Child Poverty" to help ensure basic needs are met for every child in San Diego. SHCC has created a template you may use for this purpose; however this format is not required. Summary Report: ENERGY STAR Adjustment for HUD-52667 Spreadsheet Model (Appendix 3 of the HUD Utility Model (HUSM) Rebenchmarking report). Other Electric. Utility Model Data 2010 Analysis. November 2006. The City of San Diego COVID-19 Housing Stability Assistance Program has concluded. 1. Need help searching for a unit? Meetings are Tenant-supplied Appliances. money we will pay toward rent for each family in our Section 8 Housing more accurately reflect the rents charged in individual neighborhoods. Projected Family Allowances To be used to compute specific family allowances. Heating $ Name of Family Cooking: Other Electric Air Conditioning: Address of Use Water Heating: Water Sewer: Trash Collection Range/Microwave: Refrigerator Number of Bedrooms: Other Total $ PO Box 94725, Seattle, WA , 98124-4725 Units included in the sample should have at least 10 months of occupancy. Major Housing Programs. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). !9! The purpose of the Utility Allowance (UA) is to determine the subsidy required to reimburse an energy conscious resident for utility costs. The utility allowance does not include telephone, cable or satellite television service, and internet service. To determine the minimum required number of samples by bedroom please refer to the grid below. payment standards are required by the U.S. Department of Housing and Glazer, Jason. A householdis entitled to a shelter/utility deduction when shelter and utility expenses are more than 50 percent of the monthly countable gross incomeafter all other deductions. Utility Allowance Schedule: Statewide Duplex Locality 11/1/2020 Date Statewide Utility Allowance Unit Type Duplex, Townhouse and Garden Apartment (< 5 units) Monthly Dollar Allowances Utility or Service 0 BR 1 BR 2 BR 3 BR 4 BR 5 BR 6 BR 7 BR 8 BR 9 BR All Other Electric 21 29 37 45 53 61 0 0 0 0 Cooking - Bottle Gas 5 9 13 17 21 25 0 0 0 0 . h?KAg7g Please see the Area Median Income chartAMI Inclement Weather Shelter beds activated for March 3, 2023. Note: Guidance documents, except when based on statutory or regulatory authority or law, do not have the force and effect of law and are not meant to bind the public in any way. HUD Utility Model (HUSM) Rebenchmarking. June 2013. Landlord Calculating Estimated Non-Heat Utility Costs (Cooking, Hot Water, and Miscellaneous Electric) These allowances are established for the entire state. After completing the utility analysis using the UAF, owners and agents should compare the results to their paid utilities over the previous 12-months. The "Utility Estimates" page lists allowances according to the utility types expected to be paid by the tenant household and by the number of bedrooms in the unit. pageLanguage: 'en' In the areas served by the HACSD, please click on the chart below to Utility or Service. A PHA is responsible for establishing and maintaining a utility allowance schedule that provides reasonable allowances for tenant-paid utilities. The utility allowance values for Federal Fiscal Year 2022 were calculated to increase using The Consumer Price Index (CPI) of 240.778% for June 2021 published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor, and were submitted to and approved by the USDA. Families receiving Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher assistance benefit from a certain amount of money each month to help pay their rent and utilities. Other--specify: Monthly Charges. the utility allowance. Facebook: @SanDiegoForEveryChild Electric Charge $9.17. Utility Allowance Schedule U.S Department of Housing and OMB Approval No. To find out your TTP, you must calculate your gross annual income, deduct $480.00 for each child, and January 2003. Natural Gas; $7. Utility Allowance Policies for LIHTC Developments Ninety (90) Day Implementation Period Per Treasury Regulation 1.42-10, the changes to the utility allowances must be implemented within ninety (90) days. HUD has gathered utility provider data in a helpful website that can be accessed here. Instagram: @SDforEveryChild. When reviewing the UA it is important to know the funding source(s) involved and how they may or may not work together. Inclement Weather Shelter beds activated for March 3, 2023. Utility or Service: per month cost Complete below for the actual unit rented: Space Heating Name of Family: Cooking Other Electric: Air Conditioning Water Heating: Unit Address Water: Sewer Trash Collection: Range/Microwave Number of Bedrooms: Refrigerator Other: Total . Meetings are held at 3989 Ruffin Road, San Locality/PHA Unit Type Date (mm/dd . If, in the owners opinion, the results indicate a significant disparity between the two, the owner should complete a baseline analysis to ensure that the allowances are accurate. More than 16,000 households receive help to pay their rent through the federal Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher rental assistance program administered by SDHC. Fuel Source Monthly Allowance Space Heating; Electric Heat Pump. Final Model Development Report. July 2015. Summary Report: Heating and Cooling Trend Adjustment (Appendix 2 of the HUD Utility Model (HUSM) Rebenchmarking report). WA)-Vr\{&7#+Got_i4g^x%aEA[ zB; The use of multiple payment Utility Allowance Baseline Analysis Owner Certification This is an SHCC form that includes all the supplemental information that is required for the Baseline Analysis. Utility Allowance Schedule. All Rights Reserved. Water and sewer are paid by the owner. Glazer, Jason. Change or Add a New Utility Allowance The Utility Allowance screen will show a list of any utility allowances currently in the system, if any. County Information (858) 694-3900 2-1-1 San The owner's request to utilize the CUAC must be received by TCAC no later than 60 forward, the new payment standards used to determine the maximum additional information. This includes more than 3,700 affordable rental housing units owned or managed by SDHC, including its nonprofit affiliate, Housing Development Partners (HDP). Unit size: 2 BR. endstream endobj 11 0 obj <> endobj 12 0 obj <> endobj 13 0 obj <>stream RECS 2001 Data Revisions. 2rw+di. Allowances for U.S. Department of Housing Tenant-Furnished Utilities and Urban Development and Other Services Office of Public and Indian Housing Locality Green Discount Unit Type Date (mm/dd/yyyy) HA of the City/County of San Francisco 1815 Egbert Avenue San Francisco, CA 94124 Utility or Service Monthly Dollar Allowances Check which method(s) you have selected for your project. Please contact your project's assigned Seattle Office of Housing asset manager prior to implementing an alternative utility allowance model. Electric Heat Pump; $32. Counties in Region B: Cooking. pageLanguage: 'en' Locality: Sacramento Housing and Redevelopment Agency, CA Utility or Service: 0BR Heating . The new approach to payment standards using the localized rent in All Rights Reserved. Other Electric: Air Conditioning. endstream endobj 15 0 obj<>stream All Content Copyright SDHC. Electric; $64. The tenant would pay for gas & electric utilities. Cooking. Air Conditioning Regression-CDDxBedroom. Unit size: 2 BR. GARD Analytics. Other--specify: Monthly Charges. Owner Changes Form. For complete details on what utility allowance methods are permitted for HOME-funded projects, as well as a summary of eligible utility allowance methods for all housing projects receiving direct funding under the Seattle Office of Housing Rental Housing Program, please review our Calculation & Approval of Utility Allowances policy. Section 8 Referral Listings. SAFMRs do not apply to other non-Section 8 HCV rental assistance Please include a copy of the notice when you submit your Utility Allowance analysis. To assist in this process, HUD developed a standard form called HUD-52667 to show what type of utility cost information should be provided, plus guidance on how to estimate utility allowances. Have questions on how the new SAFMRs Connect with us: The San Diego Housing Commission is pleased to be a partner in San Diego for Every Child: The Coalition to End Child Poverty to help ensure basic needs are met for every child in San Diego. Utility Allowances - 2023; Utility Allowances - 2022.pdf; Utility Allowances - 2021.pdf; Change of Ownership Request If you have recently purchased a property or changed the management company where a Housing Choice Voucher Program participant resides, please complete the Change of Ownership Request form. For the two years following a baseline utility allowance analysis, the utility allowance for each unit type and each utility type can be adjusted by a state-specific increase factor, the Utility Allowance Factor (UAF). Borrowers must fully document that changes to rents and utility allowances are necessary to cover housing or utility costs allowed under the approved budget for the housing. schedule. All Tax Credit developments with tenant-paid utilities must follow the Utility Allowance Determination as established by the IRS in Treasury Regulation 1.42-10. Calculating Rent and HAP Payments 4 November 2019 HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM GUIDEBOOK PHAs are required4 to adopt a minimum rent which may be set anywhere from $0 to $50. The utility allowance is intended Utility Allowance Model Final Report. June 2003. Email: Housing@seattle.gov, Sign up for the latest updates from Housing. programs. Space Heating . Any changes must apply to all similar units in the housing project. benefit from a certain amount of money each month to help pay their No Fear Act | instagram live shooting twitter could not find a declaration file for module vue typescript Allowances for Tenant-Furnished Utilities and 1917 Harden St., Columbia, SC 29204 Office Hours: Monday - Friday 8:00 am - 5:00 pm 1917 Harden St., Columbia, SC 29204 Office Hours: Monday - Friday 8:00 am - 5:00 pm 1917 Harden St. Columbia, SC 29204 Glazer, Jason. Updates to this version of the model include: An instructions document has been developed to provide a step-by-step explanation on how to use the model. The amount of money is different for each family and depends upon the family size, income, and bedroom size. 7/31/2022 Office of Public and Indian Housing The following allowances are used to determine the total cost of tenant-furnished utilities and appliances. Natural Gas Charge $18.19. Check the Status of Your Application As outlined in the Calculation & Approval of Utility Allowances policy, housing projects with Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC) administered by the Washington State Housing Finance Commission (WSHFC) may be able to use an alternative method for estimating utility allowances. Timeline for Implementing New PHA Utility Allowance Once a PHA publishes an updated Utility Allowance Schedule, the owner/agents have 90 days to Only a HUSM completed by a licensed or certified professional will now be accepted. 30% of area median income, 50% of area median income, etc.). Urban Development (HUD) for the San Diego metropolitan area. Cooking. Other Electric. GARD Analytics. 142 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[10 267]/Info 9 0 R/Length 352/Prev 382853/Root 11 0 R/Size 277/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Fax: (206) 233-7117 Guidance documents are intended only to provide clarity to the public regarding existing requirements under the law or agency policies. HUD Utility Schedule Model (HUSM) (Revised Model Posted on 8/23/16) The Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R) has developed the HUD Utility Schedule Model to provide a consistent basis for calculating utility schedules. The following allowances are used to determine the total cost of tenant-furnished utilities and appliances. CHARTfor information on San Diego County income limits. Natural Gas Charge $18.19. The San Diego Housing Commission (SDHC) has produced a concluding report about the program and the assistance it provided. total tenant payment (TTP). There are two types of analyses, Baseline and Factor Based. Utility or Service: Other Electric (Lights & Appliances) (avg) COVID-19 Housing Stability Assistance Program, Landlord Engagement and Assistance Program, Citys Affordable Housing Expedite Program, City of San Diego Homelessness Response Center, Program for Engaged Educational Resources (PEER), Housing Authority of the City of San Diego. To calculate your possible assistance, you must figure out your Utility Allowance Factor Based Analysis Owner Certification This is an SHCC form that includes all the information that is required for the Factor-Based Analysis. Utility or Service. You take Box 23268, Washington, DC 20026-3268 Urban Development exp. Utility Allowance Schedule. the HCV program was based on rent estimates for the entire Water Heating. Local Public Housing Authorities are required to routinely update the allowances for utility costs. The calculations must be based on an average of the previous 12 months actual costs. 800-545-1833, ext. Actual Family Allowances. ( 2) ( i) A PHA's utility allowance schedule, and the utility allowance for an individual family, must include the utilities and services that are necessary in the locality to provide housing that complies with the . $26. etc. Name of Family. Cooking. Rainier Valley Affordable Homeownership Initiative, Calculation & Approval of Utility Allowances, 700 5th Ave, Suite 5700, Seattle, WA, 98104, Incentive zoning compliance for property managers, Read Seattle laws for renters and landlords. These include estimated cost allowances for space heating, water heating, cooking and miscellaneous electric use (lights, refrigeration, etc. new google.translate.TranslateElement({ Maiko Winkler-Chin, Director Utility Allowance Schedule See Public Reporting and Instructions on back. If the analysis results in a decrease and implementation is delayed, the owner will be responsible for absorbing the decrease until the required notices can be distributed to residents. The standard utility allowance includes the costs of heating fuel, electricity, cooling costs, water, sewer, trash collection and telephone service. Utility or Service per month cost Complete below for the actual unit rented. Utility Model Evaluation. September 2005. The San Diego Housing Commission (SDHC) helps families with lower incomes in the City of San Diego obtain housing that they can afford. Projects that did not receive HOME funds or received a commitment of HOME funds prior to August 23, 2013 have the following . A list of Utility Allowance Analysis providers can be found here. Utility or Service. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), Landlord All Content Copyright SDHC. Glazer, Jason. Utility Allowance: Maximum Cash Rent This page revised 6/2010 Example: A two bedroom apartment affordable at 50% AMI is equipped with an electric heating system, a gas stove, and an individual gas water heater. Rental Assistance Calculation Chart Please see the Area Median Income chart AMI CHART for information on San Diego County income limits. Units that meet the following criteria should not be included in the analysis: The Calculation Spreadsheet should indicate if any units qualify for any of these exemptions.

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